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Anatomical  Terminology 



LEWELLYS   F.  j^ARKER,  M.  D. 


Iimttb  IDocabularies  in  Xatin  anb  Bngltsb 
anb  1[llU6tration0 


I0I2  Walnut  Street. 

Copyright,  1907,  by  P.  Blakiston's  Son  &  Co. 



1220-24   8ANSOM    STREET 



m  I 

9  (j'l 



Introduction, i 

What  the  BNA  is, 2 

Why  this  Review  of  Anatomical  Terminology  was  Undertaken, 2 

The  Scope  of  the  Work  and  the  Workers, 4 

The  Way  the  Work  was  Done, 5 

The  Principles  Arrived  at  as  the  Work  Proceeded, 6 

The  Adoption  of  the  BNA  in  America  and  Great  Britain, 8 

The  Future  of  Anatomical  Terminology, 11 

Anatomical  Names, 14 

Terms  Indicating  the  Position  and  Direction  of  Parts  of  the  Body, 14 

General  Terms, 14 

Terms  Relating  to  the  Extremities, 14 

General  Anatomical  Terms, 15 

Parts  of  the  Human  Body, 17 

Head, 17 

Skull, 17 

Face, 17 

Eye, 17 

Nose, 17 

Mouth, 17 

Neck, 17 

Trunk, 17 

Thorax, 17 

Back, 17 

Belly, 18 

Pelvis, 18 

Upper  Extremities, 18 

Lower  Extremities, 18 

Osteology, 19 

Vertebral  Column,  or  Spine, 19 

Atlas, 19 

Epistropheus  (O.  T.  Axis), 20 

Sacrum, 20 

Coccyx, 20 

Thorax, 20 

Ribs, 20 

Breast  Bone, 20 

Thoracic  Cavity, 20 

Bones  of  the  Skull, 20 

Basilar  Bone, 20 

Occipital  Bone, 20 

Sphenoid  Bone, 21 

Temporal  Bone, 22 

Parietal  Bone, 23 

Frontal  Bone, 23 

Ethmoid  Bone, 23 

Inferior  Turbinated  Bone, 24 

Lacrimal  Bone, 24 

Nasal  Bone, 24 

Vomer,  or  Ploughshare,  Bone, 24 

Bones  of  the  Face, 24 

Maxilla  (O.  T.  Superior  Maxillary  Bone), 24 

Palate  Bone, 24 



iv  Contents 

Osteology  (Coniimced)  page 

Ligaments  of  the  Girdle  of  Lower  Extremity  (O.  T.  Pelvic  Girdle), 34 

Sacro-Iliac  Joint, 35 

Symphysis  of  Pubic  Bones, 35 

Hip  Joint, 35 

Knee  Joint, 35 

Tibiofibular  Joint  (O.  T.  Superior  Tibiofibular  Articulation), 35 

Tibiofibular  Syndesmosis  (O.  T.  Inferior  Tibiofibular  Articulation), 35 

Joints  of  the  Foot, 35 

Ankle  Joint, 35 

Intertarsal  Joints, 36 

Talocalcaneonavicular  Joint, 36 

Talocalcanean  Joint, 36 

Chopart's  Transverse  Articulation  of  the  Tarsus, 36 

Talonavicular  Joint, 36 

Calcaneocuboid  Joint, 36 

Cuneonavicular  Joint, 36 

Interosseous  Ligaments  of  Tarsus, 36 

Dorsal  Ligaments  of  Tarsus, 36 

Plantar  Ligaments  of  Tarsus, 36 

Tarsometatarsal  Joints, 36 

Intermetatarsal  Joints, 36 

Metatarsophalangeal  Joints, 36 

Joints  of  the  Toes, 37 

Myology  or  Musculature, 37 

Muscles  of  the  Back, 37 

Muscles  of  the  Head, 38 

Muscles  of  the  Hyoid  Bone, 38 

Muscles  of  the  Neck, 38 

Muscles  of  the  Thorax, 39 

Muscles  of  the  Abdomen, 39 

Coccygeal  Muscles, 40 

Muscles  of  the  Upper  Extremity, 40 

Muscles  of  the  Lower  Extremity,. 41 

BuRS^  AND  Mucous  Sheaths, 43 

Splanchnology, 45 

Digestive  Apparatus, 45 

Mouth  Cavity, 45 

Mucous  Membrane  of  the  Mouth, 45 

Glands  of  the  Mouth, 45 

Teeth, 46 

Tongue, 46 

Fauces, 46 

Muscles  of  the  Palate  and  Fauces, 47 

Pharynx, 47 

Digestive  Tube, 47 

Oesophagus, 47 

Stomach, 47 

Small  or  Thin  Intestine, 48 

Large  or  Thick  Intestine, 48 

Rectum  or  Straight  Gut, 49 

Pancreas, 49 

Liver, 49 

Respiratory  Apparatus, 50 

Nasal  Cavity, 50 

External  Nose, 51 

Larynx, 51 

Muscles  of  Larynx, 52 

Cavity  of  Larynx, 52 

Trachea  and  Bronchi, 52 

I^ung, - 52 

Thoracic    Cavity, 53 

Thyreoid  Gland, 53 

Carotid  Skein  (O.  T.  Intercarotid  Gland), ^^ 

Contents  v 

Respiratory  Apparatus  (Contimied)  page 

Thymus, ^3 

Urogenital  Apparatus, 53 

Uropoietic  Organs, 53 

Kidney, ^3 

Renal  Arteries, 54 

Renal  Veins, 54 

Ureter, 54 

Urinary  Bladder, 54 

Suprarenal  Gland, ^4 

Male  Genital  Organs, 5^ 

Testicle, 55 

Seminal  Vesicle • ^^ 

Spermatic  Cord  and  Coats  of  the  Testicle  and  Cord, 55 

Prostate, 55 

Bulbo-urethral  Gland  (O.  T.  Cowper's  Gland), 56 

Parts  of  External  Genitals, 56 

Penis, 56 

Male  Urethra, 56 

Scrotum, ^6 

Female  Genital  Organs, 56 

Ovary, 56 

Uterine  Tube  (O.  T.  Fallopian  Tube), 56 

Uterus, ^7 

Vagina, 57 

Epo-ophoron  (O.  T.  Parovarium  or  Organ  of  Rosenmueller), 57 

External  Genital  Parts, 57 

Paro-ophoron, 57 

Large  Vestibular  Gland  of  Bartholin, 57 

Clitoris, 57 

Female  Urethra, 58 

Perineum, „ ^8 

Peritoneum, 58 

Angiology, 60 

Heart, 60 

Right  Atrium  (O.  T.  right  auricle), 61 

Right  Ventricle, 61 

Left  Atrium  (O.  T.  Left  Auricle), 61 

Left  Ventricle, 61 

Arteries, 61 

Pulmonary  Artery, 61 

Aorta, 61 

Innominate  Artery, 62 

Common   Carotid  Artery, 62 

External  Carotid  Artery, 62 

Superior  Thyreoid  Artery, 62 

Ascending  Pharyngeal  Artery, 62 

Lingual  Artery, ' 62 

External  Maxillary  Artery  (O.  T.  Facial  Artery) , 62 

Sternocleidomastoid  Artery, 62 

Occipital  Artery 62 

Posterior  Auricular  Artery, 62 

Superficial  Temporal  Artery, 62 

Internal  Maxillary  Artery, 62 

Internal  Carotid  Artery, 63 

Ophthalmic  Artery, 63 

Cerebral  Arteries, 63 

Subclavian  Artery, 63 

Vertebral  Artery, 63 

Basilar  Artery, 63 

Internal  Mammary  Artery, 63 

Thyreocervical  Trunk  (O.  T.  Thyreoid  Axis), 63 

Inferior  Thyreoid  Artery, 63 

Ascending  Cervical  Artery, 64 

vi  Contents 

Angiology,  Subclavian  Artery  (Contimied)  page 

Superficial  Cervical  Artery, 64 

Transverse  Artery  of  Scapula  (O.  T.  Suprascapular), 64 

Costocervical  Trunk  (O.  T.  Superior  Intercostal), 64 

Transverse  Artery  of  Neck  (O.  T.  Transversalis  Coli), 64 

Axillary  Artery, 64 

Highest  Thoracic  Artery  (O.  T.  Superior  Thoracic  Artery), 64 

Thoraco-Acromial  Artery  (O.  T.  Thoracic  Axis), 64 

Lateral  Thoracic  Artery  (O.  T.  Long  Thoracic), 64 

Subscapular  Artery, 64 

Anterior  Circumflex  Artery  of  Humerus, 64 

Posterior  Circumflex  Artery  of  Humerus, 64 

Brachial  Artery, 64 

Deep  Artery  of  Upper  arm  (O.  T.  Superior  Profunda) , 64 

Superior  Ulna  Collateral  Artery  (O.  T.  Inferior  Profunda), 64 

Inferior  Ulna  Collateral  Artery  (O.  T.  Anastomotica  Magna), 64 

Radial  Artery, 64 

Ulnar  Artery, 65 

Thoracic  Aorta, 65 

Intercofetal  Arteries, 65 

Abdominal  Aorta, 65 

Inferior  Phrenic  Artery, 65 

Lumbar  Arteries, 65 

Middle  Sacral  Artery, 65 

Coeliac  Artery, 65 

Superior  Mesenteric  Artery, 66 

Inferior  Mesenteric  Artery, 66 

Middle  Suprarenal  Artery  (O.  T.  Middle  Capsular  Artery), 66 

Renal   Artery, 66 

Internal  Spermatic  Artery, 66 

Testicular    Artery, 66 

Ovarian  Artery, 66 

Common  Iliac  Artery, 66 

Hypogastric  Artery  (O.  T.  Internal  Iliac), 66 

Iliolumbar   Artery, 66 

Lateral  Sacral  Artery, 66 

Obturator  Artery, 66 

Superior  Gluteal  Artery, 66 

Inferior  Gluteal  Artery, 66 

Umbilical  Artery, 66 

Inferior  Vesical  Artery, 66 

Deferential  Artery, 66 

Uterine  Artery, 66 

Middle  Hemorrhoidal  Artery, 66 

Internal  Pudendal  Artery, 66 

External  Iliac  Artery, 66 

Inferior  Epigastric  Artery  (O.  T.  Deep  Epigastric), 66 

Deep  Circumflex  Iliac  Artery, 67 

Femoral  Artery, 67 

Popliteal  Artery, 67 

Anterior  Tibial  Artery, 67 

Posterior  Tibial  Artery, 67 

Veins, 68 

Pulmonary  Veins, 68 

Veins  of  the  Heart, 68 

Superior  Vena  Cava, 68 

Right  and  Left  Innominate  Veins, , 68 

Internal  Jugular  Vein, 68 

Sinuses  of  the  Dura  Mater, 68 

Cerebral  Veins, 69 

Superior  Ophthalmic  Vein, 69 

Common  Facial  Vein, 69 

Anterior  Facial  Vein, 69 

Posterior  Facial  Vein, 69 

Contents  vii 

AnGIOLOGY,  Veins  (Coniinued)  page 

External  Jugular  Vein, 69 

Subclavian  Vein, 70 

Axillary  Vein, 70 

Azygos  Vein  (O.  T.  Vena  Azygos  Major), 70 

Inferior  Vena  Cava, 70 

Portal  Vein, 70 

Common  Iliac  Vein, 71 

Hypogastric  Vein  (O.  T.  Internal  Iliac  Vein), 71 

External  Iliac  Veins, 71 

Lymphatic  System, 71 

Lymphatic  Vessels, 71 

Thoracic  Duct, 72 

Lymph  Glands, 72 

Lymphatic  Plexuses, 72 

Neurology, 73 

Central  Nervous  System, 73 

Spinal  Cord, 73 

Sections  of  the  Spinal  Cord, 73 

Brain, 74 

Medullary  or  After-Brain, j 74 

Medulla  Oblongata, 74 

Sections  of  Medulla  Oblongata, 74 

Fourth  Ventricle, 75 

Hind-Brain, 75 

Pons  ("  Bridge  ")  Varolii, 75 

Sections  of  the  Pons, 75 

Cerebellum  or  Small  Brain, 75 

Sections  of  Cerebellum, 76 

Isthmus  of  Rhombencephalon, 76 

Sections  of  Isthmus, 76 

Cerebrum  (Large  Brain), 76 

Midbrain, 76 

Inferior  Surface, 76 

Peduncle  of  Cerebrum  (O.  T.  Crus  Cerebri), 77 

Sections  of  Cerebral  Peduncle, 77 

Quadrigeminal  Bodies  (O,  T.  Optic  Lobes), 77 

Sections  of  Quadrigeminal  Bodies, 77 

Forebrain, 77 

Interbrain, 77 

Hypothalamus  (O.  T.  Subthalamic  Region), 77 

Sections  of  the  Hypothalamus, 77 

Thalamic  Brain, 78 

Thalamus  (O.  T.  Optic  Thalamus), 78 

Metathalamus, 78 

Epithalamus, 78 

Sections  of  the  Thalamic  Brain, 78 

End-Brain, 78 

Hemisphere, 78 

Brain  Mantle, 78 

Medial  Surface  of  Hemisphere, 79 

Fornix, 79 

Transparent  Septum, 80 

Lateral  Ventricle, 80 

Olfactory  Brain, 80 

Sections  of  End-Brain, 80 

Membranes  of  Brain, 81 

Peripheral  Nervous  System, 81 

Cerebral  Nerves, 81 

Olfactory  Nerves, 81 

Optic  Nerve, 81 

Oculomotor  Nerve  (O.  T.  Third  Nerve), 81 

Trochlear  Nerve  (O.  T.  Patheticus  or  Fourth  Nerve), 81 

Trigeminal  Nerve  (O.  T.  Fifth  Nerve), 82 



Neurology,  Peripheral  Nervous  System,  Cerebral  Nerves  {Continued)  page 

Ophthalmic  Nerve, 82 

Maxillary  Nerve  (O.  T.  Superior  Maxillary), 82 

Mandibular  Nerve  (O.  T.  Inferior  Maxillary), 82 

Abducent  Nerve  (O.  T.  Sixth  Nerve), 2>t, 

Facial  Nerve, 83 

Acoustic  (O.  T.  Auditory  Nerve), 83 

Glossopharyngeal  Nerve, ^;^ 

Vagus  Nerve  (O.  T.  Pneumogastric  Nerve), 84 

Accessory  Nerve  (O.  T.  Spinal  Accessory), 84 

Hypoglossal  Nerve, , 84 

Spinal  Nerves, 84 

Cervical  Nerves, 85 

Brachial  Plexus, 85 

Median  Nerve, 85 

Ulnar  Nerve, 85 

Radial  Nerve  (O.  T.  Musculospiral), 86 

Thoracic  Nerves, 86 

Lumbar,  Sacral,  and  Coccygeal  Nerves, 86 

Lumbosacral  Plexus, 86 

Lumbar  Plexus, 86 

Iliohypogastric  Nerve, 86 

Ilio-inguinal  Nerve, 86 

Genitofemoral  Nerve  (O.  T.  Genitocrural  Nerve), 86 

Lateral  Cutaneous  Nerve  of  Thigh  (O.  T.  External  Cutaneous), 86 

Obturator  Nerve, 86 

Femoral  Nerve  (O.  T.  Anterior  Crural), 87 

Sacral  Plexus, 87 

Sciatic  Nerve  (O.  T.  Great  Sciatic), 87 

Pudendal  Plexus, 87 

Coccygeal  Nerve, 87 

Sympathetic  System  of  Nerves, 88 

Cephalic  and  Cervical  Portions  of  the  Sympathetic  System, 88 

Thoracic  Portion  of  the  Sympathetic  System, 88 

Abdominal  and  Pelvic  Portions  of  the  Sympathetic  System, 88 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument, 89 

Organ  of  Vision, 89 

Eye, 89 

Optic  Nerve, 89 

Eyeball, 89 

Fibrous  Tunic  of  Eve, 89 

Sclera  (O.  T.  Sclerotic  Coat), 89 

Cornea, 89 

.    Vascular  Coat  of  Eye, 89 

Chorioid, 89 

Ciliary  Body, 90 

Iris  or  Diaphragm  of  the  Eye, 90 

Layer  of  Pigment, 90 

Retina, 90 

Anterior  Chamber  of  the  Eye, 90 

Posterior  Chamber  of  the  Eye, 90 

Vitreous  Body, 90 

Crystalline  Lens, 90 

Ciliary  Zonule  (O.  T.  Zonule  of  Zinn), 91 

Accessory  Organs  of  the  Eye, 91 

Eye  Muscles,  Orbital  Fasciae, 91 

Eyebrow, 91 

Eyelids, 91 

Conjunctiva, 91 

Lacrimal  Apparatus, 91 

Organ  of  Hearing, 92 

Internal  Ear, 92 

Membraneous  Labyrinth, 92 

Osseous  Labyrinth, 92 

Contents  ix 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument,  Organ  of  Hearing  {Continued)  pack 

Vestibule, 92 

Cochlea, q2 

Internal  Acoustic  Meatus, g^ 

Cavity  of  Tympanum, g^, 

Membrane  of  the  Tympanum  (O.  T.  Drumhead), 93 

Auditory  Ossicles, q3 

Joints  of  the  Auditory  Ossicles, 94 

Ligaments  of  the  Auditory  Ossicles, 94 

Muscles  of  the  Auditory  Ossicles, 94 

Tympanic  Mucous  Coat, 94 

Auditory  or  Eustachian  Tube, 94 

External  Acoustic  Meatus, 94 

External  Ear, 94 

Organ  of  Smell, 95 

Organ  of  Taste, 95 

Common  Integument, 95 

Skin, 95 

Epidermis  or  Scarf  Skin, 95 

Corium  or  Leather  Skin, 95 

Subcutaneous  Tissue, 95 

Terminal  Corpuscles  of  the  Nerves, 95 

Hair, 95 

Nails, 96 

Glands  of  the  Skin 96 

Coil  Glands, 96 

Sebaceous  Glands, 96 

Breast, 96 

Regions  of  the  Human  Body, 97 

of  the  Head, 98 

of  the  Face, 98 

of  the  Neck, 98 

of  the  Breast, 99 

of  the  Abdomen, 99 

of  the  Back, 99 

of  the  Upper  Extremity, 99 

of  the  Lower  Extremity, 100 

Explanatory  Notes  to  Certain  Terms, loi 

Colored  Plates  of  Regions, 105-107 



Now  that  the  BNA  is  being  followed  in  medical  and  scientific  schools 
throughout  the  world,  and  has  been  adopted  as  the  language  used  in  several  of  the 
newer  English  and  American  anatomical  text-books  and  atlases,  it  has  occurred 
to  the  publishers  of  Morris's  Anatomy  that  a  concise  statement  concerning  the 
origin  and  exact  nature  of  this  list  of  anatomical  terms  would  be  interesting 
and  helpful  to  anatomists,  physiologists,  biologists,  pathologists,  and  cUnicians. 
They  have  asked  me  to  prepare  this  statement,  and  I  do  so  gladly,  in  the  hope 
that  it  may  bring  the  terminology  to  the  attention  of  many  who  do  not  yet  know 
of  it,  and  make  clear,  perhaps,  certain  misunderstandings  that  have  existed  in 
the  minds  of  some  who  have  heard  of  it,  but  are  not  yet  really  familiar  with 
it.  To  know  its  origin,  nature,  and  aims  is,  I  feel  sure,  in  the  majority  of 
instances  at  least,  to  decide  to  use  it.  That  the  sooner  a  general  decision  to 
adopt  it  is  reached  the  better  it  will  be  for  anatomical  instruction  and  research, 
and  the  easier  it  will  be  for  teacher  and  taught,  it  is  the  aim  of  the  following 
paragraphs  to  show.  They  have  not  been  difficult  to  write,  for,  aside  from  the 
experience  I  have  gained  by  personally  using  the  BNA  in  anatomical  labora- 
tories during  the  past  ten  years,  the  material  for  the  account  lay  ready  at  hand 
in  the  articles  of  Krause*  and  Hisf  and  it  has  been  necessary  only  to  adapt 
it  to  the  needs  of  readers  in  America  and  Great  Britain.  The  article  by 
Professor  His  has  been  followed  especially  closely,  and  parts  of  my  account  are 
no  other  than  a  free  translation  of  his  lucid  paragraphs.  The  actual  list  of 
Latin  names  of  the  BNA  is  to  be  published  at  once  by  Messrs.  P.  Blakiston's 
Son  &  Co.  and  Messrs.  J.  &  A.  Churchill.  It  will  be  accompanied  by  a  list  of 
literal  English  equivalents  which  Dr.  Benson  A.  Cohoe,  Assistant  Resident 
Physician  in  the  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  has  been  kind  enough  to  help  me  to 
prepare.  The  English  vocabulary  is  simply  explanatory;  in  many  instances  it 
would  be  unwise  to  use  the  English  synonyms  given,  and  in  many  more  instances 
anatomists  would  differ  as  to  the  most  suitable  English  equivalent  to  be  chosen. 
Each  anatomist  is  of  course  at  liberty  to  use  whatever  English  equivalent  he 
desires  for  the  official  Latin  terms.  Students  are  strongly  advised,  however, 
to  use  the  original  Latin  terms  as  English  words.  The  Latin  terms  are  the  only 
authorized  ones. 

*  Krause,  W. :  Die  anatomische  Nomenclatur.  Internat.  Monatsschr.  f .  Anat.  u.  PhysioL, 
1893.  X,  3^3- 

tHis,  W.:  "Die  anatomische  Nomenclatur.  Nomina  anatomica,  Verzeichniss  der  von  der 
anatomischen  Gesellschaft  auf  ihrer  IX.  Versammlung  in  Basel  aufgenommenen  Namen 
Eingeleitet  und  im  Einverstandniss  mit  dem  Redactionsausschuss  erlautert.  Mit  dreissig 
Abbildungen  in  Text  und  zwei  Tafeln":  Leipzig,  Veit  &  Co.,  1895.  (Reprinted  from  the 
Arch.  f.  Anat.  u.  Physiol,  anat.  Abth.  Leipzig,  1895,  Supplement-Band.) 

2  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

What  the  "BNA"  is. 

The  expression  BNA  is  a  shorthand  title  for  a  list  of  some  4500  anatomical 
terms  {nomina  anatomica)  accepted  at  Basle  in  1895  by  the  Anatomical  Society 
as  the  most  suitable  designations  for  the  various  parts  of  the  human  anatomy 
which  are  visible  to  the  naked  eye.  The  terms  are  all  in  correct  Latin  and  have 
been  selected  by  a  group  of  the  most  distinguished  anatomists  in  the  world, 
•working  six  years  at  their  task,  as  the  shortest  and  simplest  available  names  for 
the  different  structures;  the  majority  of  the  terms  were  already  in  use  in  the 
various  text-books,  but  some  of  them  were  selected  from  anatomical  monographs 
not  considered  in  the  text-books,  and  a  few  of  them  are  brand-new,  introduced 
into  the  hst,  where  an  examination  of  the  literature  and  of  anatomical  prep- 
arations showed  that  none  of  the  terms  hitherto  coined  was  satisfactory. 

One  name  only  is  given  to  each  structure,  and  the  mass  of  synonyms  which 
encumbered  the  text-books  can  thus  be  swept  away.  If  one  of  the  larger  text- 
books of  gross  anatomy  be  examined,  as  many  as  10,000  terms  will  be  found 
employed,  the  half  of  which  are  synonyms ;  and  if  the  anatomical  terms  used  in 
the  various  standard  text-books  be  collected  into  one  list,  the  total  number 
amounts  to  more  than  30,000.  It  is  no  small  achievement  to  have  reduced  the 
necessary  number  of  terms  in  gross  anatomy,  as  it  is  known  to-day,  to  less  than 
5000, — an  achievement  for  which  both  students  and  teachers  of  the  subject  must 
be  thankful. 

Even  more  important  is  the  exclusion  from  the  list  of  all  obscure  or  ambig- 
uous terms,  each  name  employed  having  a  definite  and  easily  ascertainable 
meaning.  The  construction  of  the  list  has  led,  too,  to  the  establishment  of  cer- 
tain general  principles  regarding  the  formation  and  use  of  anatomical  terms, 
and  these  principles  promise  to  be  of  great  service  in  simplifying  terminology 
and  keeping  it  uniform-  as  anatomical  science  continues  to  develop. 

Why  this  revision  of  anatomical  terminology  was  imdertaken. 

Previous  to  undertaking  this  revision  of  the  names  used  in  gross  anatomy, 
the  burden  of  terms  which  had  to  be  carried  by  text-book,  teacher,  and  pupil 
had  been  growing  progressively  heavier.  Anatomical  structures  had  been  chris- 
tened in  a  most  haphazard  way.  From  the  beginning  of  the  science  each  inves- 
tigator gave  names  as  he  would  to  the  parts  he  studied,  and  as  one  investigator 
was  often  ignorant  of  the  work  done  by  others  the  same  parts  were  frequently 
differently  dubbed.  The  authors  of  anatomical  text-books,  especially  those  who 
read  widely,  gradually  collected  these  terms,  though  each  author  selected  and 
jerected  names  from  the  lists  used  by  his  predecessors  as  he  thought  fit. 

It  has  thus  come  about  that  we  have  inherited  from  previous  centuries  an 
excess  of  anatomical  terms,  many  single  structures  carrying  double  or  even  mul- 
tiple designations.  Examples  come  at  once  to  mind:  The  pneumogastric 
nerve  is  also  the  vagus  nerve  as  well  as  the  tenth  cerebral  nerve;  the  trapezius 
muscle  is  known  to  some  as  the  musculus  cucullaris ;  the  laryngeal  prominence 
is  also  Adam's  apple;  the  aqueduct  of  the  cerebrum  is  also,  in  many  books,  the  iter 
e  tertio  ad  quartum  ventriculum;  m.  levator  palati  is  synonymous  with  m.  petro- 
salpingostaphyHnus.  These  double  and  multiple  terms  were  passed  on  from 
lecture  to  lecture  and  from  text-book  to  text-book,  and  as  a  result  of  this  anarchy 
in  the  creation  and  use  of  terms  the  weight  became  terribly  grievous. 
Teachers  and  pupils  writhed  under  it.  Anatomical  research  was,  to  some  extent 
at  least,  retarded  by  it.  When  the  valvula  coH  was  known  also  variously  as 
the  valvula  ileocecalis,  the  valvula  Bauhini,  the  valvula  Tulpii,  and  the  valvula 
Falloppii,  a  certain  historical  sense  may  have  been  aroused  and  opportunity 

Why  the  Revision  Was  Undertaken  3 

given,  as  His  suggests,  for  the  discussion  of  fossil  questions  of  priority,  but  the 
inconveniences  of  such  ballast  were  sufficiently  obvious. 

As  this  naming  went  on  by  the  authors  of  individual  text-books  or  mono- 
graphs, a  great  many  terms  were  proposed  which  never  became  current;  others 
were  gradually  employed  in  a  sense  other  than  that  originally  intended;  some 
attained  to  general  anatomical  parlance.  It  was  the  success  that  a  name  met 
with  which  justified  its  adoption  in  the  science,  although  often,  as  examination 
has  shown,  it  was  fashion  which  in  her  imperious  way  decided,  sometimes  sud- 
denly replacing  an  entirely  suitable  anatomical  term  by  another,  no  better. 
The  names  arising,  as  it  were,  by  chance  and  at  totally  different  periods  in  the 
various  anatomical  systems,  it  was  scarcely  possible  that  anatomical  terminol- 
ogy as  a  whole  could  manifest  any  general  plan  or  have  much  uniformity  of 
character;  it  was  necessarily  chaotic  and  incoherent, — full  of  inequalities,  con- 
tradictions, and  obscurities. 

The  distinguished  German  anatomist,  J.  Henle,  when  writing  his  well- 
known  treatise,  felt  keenly  the  faults  of  the  inherited  terminology  and  made  a 
great  effort  at  improvement.  In  his  text-book  of  anatomy  he  gave  only  one 
name  to  each  structure,  banishing  all  synonyms  to  the  footnotes;  he  waged  war 
against  personal  names,  and  replaced  them  by  objective  terms,  urging  that  his- 
torical injustice  was  frequently  done  by  their  retention.  It  is  to  Henle,  also, 
that  we  owe  the  introduction  and  consistent  use  of  those  excellent  terms  of 
orientation, — the  words  sagittal,  frontal,  medial,  lateral,  etc.  But  even  as  great 
an  anatomist  as  Henle  could  not  simpHfy  anatomical  terminology  satisfac- 
torily without  the  sympathetic  cooperation  of  other  anatomists.  Each  great 
medical  school  had  to  a  certain  extent  its  own  anatomical  language,  and  the 
physician  who  tried  to  read  articles  in  which  the  terms  of  schools  other  than 
that  in  which  he  had  been  brought  up  were  used  met  with  irritating  difficulties. 
A  student  going  from  one  university  to  another  often  found  that  the  anatomical 
expressions  acquired  with  great  difficulty  in  the  one  had  to  be  supplanted  by 
another  set  of  terms,  equally  hard  to  learn,  in  the  other. 

This  harmful  and  humiliating  state  of  affairs  stirred  up  in  anatomists  in 
various  countries  a  strong  feeling  for  the  necessity  of  remedy.  Anatomical  so- 
cieties in  America,  in  Germany,  and  in  Great  Britain  interested  themselves  much 
in  the  problem.  In  America  it  was  Professor  Burt  G.  Wilder,  of  Ithaca,  who  felt 
most  keenly  the  need  of  reform  in  terminology.  He  deserves  great  credit  for  his 
efforts  to  stimulate  other  American  anatomists  to  a  realization  of  this  need,  as 
well  as  for  the  time  and  labor  he  has  given  to  attempt  to  improve  and  simplify 
anatomical  terms.*  He  writes  me  that  the  matter  of  terminology  was  definitely 
brought  before  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  as  long 
ago  as  1880,  and  states  that  in  connection  with  the  revision  of  terminology  in 
America  the  names  of  Messrs.  Gage,  Gerrish,  Gould,  Huntington,  Leidy,  and  the 
Spitzkas,  father  and  son,  should  be  mentioned. 

The  movement  for  revision  of  terminology  which  originated  in  Germany 
in  the  enlarged  Anatomical  Society  at  its  first  meeting  in  Leipsic,  in  1887,  is  the 

*C/.  Wilder,  B.  G.:  "The  Fundamental  Principles  of  Anatomical  Nomenclature" 
(Med.  News,  Phila.,  1891,  December  19) ;  "  Macroscopical  Vocabulary  of  the  Brain,"  presented 
to  the  Association  of  American  Anatomists  at  Boston,  Mass.,  December  20,  1890;  "American 
Reports  upon  Anatomical  Nomenclature,"  1889-1890,  with  notes  by  B.  G.  Wilder,  Cor- 
nell University,  February  5,  1892;  "Anatomical  Terminology,"  by  B.  G.  Wilder  and  S.  H. 
Gage,  in  the  first  edition  of  Wood's  Reference  Handbook  of  the  Medical  Sciences;  "Neural 
Terms,  International  and  National,"  1896;  "Some  Misapprehensions  as  to  the  Simplification 
of^  the  Nomenclature  of  Anatomy,"  1898.  The  Reports  of  the  Committee  of  the  Associ- 
ation of  American  Anatomists  may  also  be  consulted. 

4  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

one  which  resulted  finally  in  the  production  of  the  BNA.  The  Society  in  that 
year  voted  that  its  officers  undertake  at  once  a  revision  of  anatomical  terms, 
with  the  hope  of  remedying  the  obvious  evils  existing.  No  sooner  did  these 
officers  begin  their  work,  however,  than  unforeseen  difficulties  began  to  appear, 
and  these  did  not  lessen  in  number  or  significance  as  the  work  progressed. 
Anatomists  may  rejoice  that  the  difficulties  were  not  insuperable.  How  they 
were  overcome  and  what  the  results  achieved  were,  I  shall  try  to  explain  in  the 
paragraphs  which  succeed. 

The  Scope  of  the  Work  and  the  Workers. 

It  soon  became  clear  that  a  permanent  commission  on  terminology  could 
deal  more  effectively  with  the  problem  than  the  officers  of  the  Society.  Again, 
an  editor-in-chief,  who  should  devote  himself  almost  entirely  to  the  work  for  a 
number  of  years,  must  of  necessity  be  appointed.  These  suggestions,  emanating 
from  Professor  His,  were  adopted  by  the  Society  in  1889.  The  Commission  on 
Nomenclature  was  at  once  appointed,  with  Professor  von  KoUiker  as  Chairman 
and  Professors  O.  Hertwig,  His,  KoUmann,  Merkel,  Schwalbe,  Toldt,  Waldeyer, 
and  V.  Bardeleben  as  members, — a  list  of  names  as  Hkely,  surely,  as  any  that 
could  have  been  chosen  to  insure  success  from  the  start. 

This  Commission  began  its  work  most  happily  by  securing  the  services  of 
Professor  W.  Krause,  of  Berlin,  as  editor-in-chief.  Krause's  literary  ability 
made  the  choice  especially  suitable.  During  the  six  years'  work  which  fol- 
lowed his  appointment  he  set  an  example,  his  collaborators  tell  us,  of  indefati- 
gable diligence  and  inexhaustible  patience.  The  necessary  correspondence 
of  such  an  editor  was  almost  interminable;  letters  often  passed  to  and  fro  for  weeks 
in  order  to  set  a  single  term  right  or  to  get  it  into  its  proper  place  in  the  list. 

The  cost  of  the  undertaking  was  a  matter  for  early  consideration.  The 
work,  while  largely  a  labor  of  love,  entailed  unavoidably  certain  expenses.  The 
original  estimate  of  the  Commission  of  10,000  marks  ($2500)  was  exceeded 
only  a  little.  It  seems  almost  incredible  that  the  work  could  have  been  accom- 
plished with  so  small  an  outlay.  A  large  proportion  of  the  cost  (some  8090 
marks)  was  defrayed  by  the  scientific  academies  of  Munich,  Berlin,  Vienna, 
Leipsic,  and  Hungary;  the  rest  of  the  amount  (3800  marks)  was  contributed  by 
the  Anatomical  Society  itself. 

The  exact  scope  of  the  work  had,  of  course,  to  be  clearly  before  the  minds 
of  the  members  of  the  Commission  from  the  outset.  It  was  decided,  therefore, 
to  consider  descriptive  anatomy  solely,  and  this  only  in  as  far  as  the  structures  are 
visible  to  the  naked  eye  or  through  a  simple  hand  lens.  No  attempts  were  to 
be  made  to  settle  the  terminology  in  domains  of  lively  contemporary  investi- 
gation, nor  were  the  terms  of  microscopic  anatomy  to  be  included.  The  list 
was  to  be  constructed  in  one  language — viz.:  Latin;  those  who  use  the  termi- 
nology were  left,  therefore,  to  translate,  at  will,  the  terms  more  or  less  freely, 
into  their  own  tongues. 

The  question  in  how  far  the  terminology  should  attempt  to  be  international 
in  character  was  a  delicate  one  for  the  Commission  to  determine.  The  Anatomi- 
cal Society,  while  organized  in  Germany  and  meeting  usually  only  in  cities  in 
which  the  German  language  is  spoken,  has  never  been  exclusively  German  in 
membership  or  character.  Indeed,  the  list  of  members  includes  names  from 
America,  Austria,  Belgium,  Denmark,  England,  France,  Hungary,  Italy,  Russia, 
Sweden,  and  Switzerland.  The  majority  of  members  are  German,  it  is  true; 
in  1895  there  were  145  German  members  to  129  members  belonging  to  other 
countries.     A  society  with  such  a  membership  might,  perhaps,  without  criticism, 

The  Way  the  Work  Was  Done  5 

undertake  the  establishment  of  a  terminology  intended  for  international  use. 
It  was  decided,  however,  not  to  make  the  undertaking  too  wide  at  the  beginning, 
to  try  rather  to  form  a  list  of  terms  which  should,  in  the  first  place,  be  acceptable 
to  German-speaking  anatomists  and,  later  on,  to  attempt  to  gain  the  cooperation 
of  anatomists  who  speak  other  languages.  Though  the  names  of  the  Commis- 
sion originally  appointed  are  all  those  of  German  or  Austrian  anatomists,  the 
lists  of  anatomical  terms  considered  were,  from  the  beginning,  taken  from 
French  and  English  as  well  as  from  German  books.  In  1890  several  anatomists 
from  Great  Britain  and  other  European  countries  were  invited  to  join  the  Com- 
mission, and,  later,  Professor  Thane  of  London  was  included.  It  was  partly 
owing,  doubtless,  to  the  relatively  undeveloped  state  of  anatomy  at  the  time  in 
American  universities,  partly  to  the  fact  that  few,  if  any,  of  our  anatomists 
then  attended  the  meetings  of  the  Anatomical  Society,  that  no  one  from  this 
country  was  invited  to  join  the  Commission,  Were  another  revision  to  be  made 
by  the  Society  to-day,  American  anatomists  would  undoubtedly  be  requested 
to  act.  The  terminology  which  the  Commission  prepared  and  which  was  ac- 
cepted by  the  Society  in  Basle,  in  1905,  was,  in  origin  and  in  execution,  there- 
fore, the  affair  of  the  Anatomical  Society  and  is  to  be  regarded  as  international 
only  in  as  far  as  that  Society  and  its  affiliations  may  be  so  regarded. 

The  Way  the  Work  was  done. 

It  is  interesting  to  learn  the  methods  followed  by  the  Commission  in  the 
accomplishment  of  its  task.  The  plan  adopted  at  the  beginning  was  greatly 
modified  as  the  work  proceeded.  Myology,  as  it  promised  to  be  much  the  easiest, 
was  the  first  subject  undertaken.  The  editor  took  as  a  basis  the  names  used  in 
the  latest  large  text-book  of  gross  anatomy.*  These  terms  were  vnritten  down 
in  a  vertical  column  and  the  synonyms  from  a  number  of  other  much-used  text- 
books placed  in  parallel  columns.  The  lists  were  manifolded  and  a  copy  sent 
to  each  commissioner  with  the  request  that  he  mark  the  term  of  his  choice,  or 
if  he  found  none  suitable  to  propose  a  new  one  for  the  structure  concerned. 
Each  commissioner  was  to  return  his  list  with  comments  to  Professor  Krause. 

When  the  first  vote  on  myological  terms  was  counted  it  was  found  that  the 
names  of  85  per  cent,  of  the  structures  had  received  a  majority  vote, — more  than 
40  per  cent,  receiving  practically  unanimous  approval.  This  surprising  result 
was  most  encouraging.  A  second  list  was  then  made  out  indicating  the  accepted 
names,  the  terms  still  not  decided  upon,  and  the  list  of  new  terms  proposed,  and 
it,  together  with  the  comments  made  by  the  various  commissioners,  was  again 
distributed.  After  the  second  vote  any  terms  left  undetermined  were  discussed 
and  settled  in  personal  sittings  of  the  Commission.  By  June,  189 1,  the  myo- 
logical terminology  was  complete  with  a  list  of  some  300  terms. 

As  a  result  of  its  early  experience  the  Commission  found  that  a  second  and 
third  vote  made  by  correspondence  gave  results  but  little  better  than  the  first 
vote.  Further,  it  was  soon  learned  that  the  new  terms  proposed  and  the  com- 
ments made  by  the  members,  often  as  a  result  of  hard  work  and  special  knowl- 
edge, were  insufficiently  considered  unless  each  new  term  and  comment  were 
verbally  discussed  in  personal  meetings  of  the  commissioners.  On  attempting 
such  verbal  discussion,  however,  in  1892,  it  was  found  that  progress  was  made 
too  slowly  in  the  full  Commission  and  it  became  necessary  to  parcel  out  the 
work  to  special  committees.  Thus  the  list  of  terms  in  Angiology  was  assigned 
to  Professors  Merkel,  Thane,  and  Toldt;  that  in  Regional  Anatomy  to  Pro- 

*  Tills  happened  to  be  C.  Gegenbaur's  "Lehrbuch  der  Anatomie  des  Menschen." 

6  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

fessors  Merkel,  Riidinger,  and  Toldt,  while  Professor  Toldt  was  made  a  com- 
mittee of  one  to  consider  the  terminology  of  joints. 

Another  important  step  consisted  in  the  appointment  of  a  special  editing 
committee  consisting  of  Professors  His,  Krause,  and  Waldeyer.  To  this  com- 
mittee was  delegated  the  task  of  giving  a  uniform  character  to  the  terminology 
as  a  whole,  a  matter  of  no  little  difhculty.  Since  the  single  systems  had  been 
voted  upon  at  long  intervals,  the  different  terms  accepted  had  received  variable 
majorities.  There  was  a  considerable  residue  of  terms  still  undetermined  in  the 
parts  already  considered  and  the  whole  list  contained  inequalities  and  even 
contradictions  which  had  to  be  corrected.  Indeed,  this  editing  committee 
found  itself  deeply  immersed  in  the  hardest  kind  of  work  for  no  less  than  three 
years  after  it  was  appointed.  The  terminology  of  the  nervous  system  and  of 
the  viscera  proved  to  be  the  most  difficult  of  all.  In  these  chapters  the  com- 
pleted list  is  deeply  indebted  especially  to  Professor  His  and  to  the  support  and 
advice  he  received  from  Professors  von  KoUiker,  Toldt,  and  Waldeyer. 

During  the  last  three  of  the  six  years'  work  it  was  found  that  results  were 
most  quickly  and  satisfactorily  reached  by  adopting  the  following  program: 
First,  the  members  of  the  Commission  were  asked  to  send  in  their  special  sugges- 
tions and  comments  for  the  unfinished  lists  even  before  the  first  vote  was  taken, 
so  that  they  could  be  considered  on  the  primary  ballot.  The  editor-in-chief, 
after  this  vote  had  been  made,  rearranged  the  lists  and  turned  them  over  to  the 
editing  committee,  the  members  of  which  reconsidered  each  term  separately 
and  decided  doubtful  questions.  This  committee  often  found  it  necessary  to 
refer  to  the  bibhography  and  even  to  dissections  to  help  it  in  its  decisions.  The 
lists  thus  edited  were  returned  to  the  Commission  for  final  comments.  These, 
when  received,  were  thoroughly  studied  by  the  editing  committee,  and  in  1895 
the  definitive  list  was  presented  by  the  Commission  to  the  Anatomical  Society 
as  a  whole  at  its  meeting  in  Basle.     The  Society  voted  its  adoption. 

The  Principles  arrived  at  as  the  Work  proceeded. 

As  the  six  years'  work  of  the  Commission  proceeded  certain  principles  of 
terminology  crystallized  out  and  simplified  the  further  revision.  It  was  found, 
however,  that  while  these  principles  were  of  value  as  general  rules,  none  of  them 
could  be  employed  absolutely  without  exception.  The  more  important  decisions 
arrived  at  were  the  following: 

(i)  Each  part  shall  have  only  one  name. 

(2)  Each  term  shall  be  in  Latin  and  be  philologically  correct. 

(3)  Each  term  shall  be  as  short  and  simple  as  possible. 

(4)  The  terms  shall  be  merely  memory  signs  and  need  lay  no  claim  to 
description  or  to  speculative  interpretation. 

(5)  Related  terms  shall,  as  far  as  possible,  be  similar — e.  g.,  Femur,  Arteria 
femoralis.  Vena  femoralis,  Nervus  femoralis. 

(6)  Adjectives,  in  general,  shall  be  arranged  as  opposites — e.  g.,  dexter 
and  sinister,  major  and  minor,  anterior  and  posterior,  superficialis  and  profundus. 

The  Commission  was  occasionally  forced  to  deviate  from  these  rules.  Thus, 
the  first  one  was  violated  with  the  mitral  valve,  which  is  named  valvula  bicus- 
pidalis  and  valvula  mitralis,  neither  term  being  omitted  (a  concession  to  clini- 
cians). The  third  rule,  while  usually  easily  followed  (few  would  care  to  retain 
the  terms  crotaphitico-buccinatorius  or  petrosalpingostaphylinus) ,  could  not 
always  be  obeyed;  for  instance,  it  did  not  seem  wise  to  abolish  that  popular 
term,  sternocleidomastoideus.  The  fifth  rule  was  ignored  in  making  the 
arteria  meningea  media  go  through  a  foramen  spinosum  (instead  of  through  a 

Principles  Arrived  at  as  Work  Proceeded  7 

foramen  meningeum  medium),  and  other  examples  might  be  given.  But  only 
when  compromise  appeared  to  be  unavoidable  did  the  Commission  consent 
to  depart  from  the  principles  mentioned. 

There  was  much  difference  of  opinion  regarding  the  retention  of  personal 
names.  Some  desired  to  continue  their  use;  others  wished  to  abolish  them  al- 
together. Much  can  be  said  on  each  side.  The  arguments  pro  and  con  have 
been  marshalled  by  His.  On  the  one  hand  (i)  historical  injustice  is  frequently 
done,  the  name  borne  by  a  part  being  not  that  of  its  real  discoverer  but  of  some 
later  worker;  (2)  the  personal  names  employed  may  vary  in  different  countries, 
Lieberkiihn's  glands  in  Germany  being  Galeati's  in  Italy,  Vater's  corpuscles  in 
the  one  country  being  those  of  Pacini  in  the  other;  (3)  in  the  literature  of  the 
specialties  personal  names  are  often  used  in  great  excess,  names  of  no  importance 
figuring  in  the  bibliography;  and  (4)  no  systematic  plan  seems  to  have  been 
followed  in  adopting  personal  names;  thus,  even  from  among  the  immortals, 
the  names  of  Eustachius  and  Malpighi  have  in  more  than  one  instance  been 
chosen  for'  anatomical  structures,  while  the  names  of  VesaKus  and  Harvey 
do  not  appear  at  all.  On  the  other  hand  it  is  argued  that  (i)  the  per- 
sonal names  are  usually  good  mnemotechnic  material,  a  student  easily 
retaining  the  names  of  Poupart's,  Gimbernat's  and  CoUes's  ligaments  and 
having  the  impulse  to  find  out  what  each  signifies;  whereas,  his  interest 
is  much  less  for  a  ligamentum  inguinale,  a  ligamentum  lacunare,  or  a 
ligamentum  inguinale  reflexum;  (2)  a  certain  feeling  of  piety  should  restrain 
us  from  sacrificing,  to  a  principle  arbitrarily  established,  terms  which  for  cen- 
turies have  been  found  good  and  useful;  and  (3)  it  is  to  the  student's  advantgae 
in  his  first  session  in  the  medical  school  to  become  familiar  with  the  names  of 
Falloppia,  Eustachius,  Malpighi,  etc.,  for  through  them  his  historical  sense  may  be 
awakened;  and  it  is,  perhaps,  matter  of  secondary  importance  whether  or  not  the 
names  are  always  rightly  used,  this  being  a  function  of  the  history  of  anatomy 
rather  than  of  anatomical  terminology.  The  Commission  compromised  by 
giving  each  part  an  objective  name  and  putting  widely  used  personal  names  in 
brackets.  Though  this  makes  the  terms  less  simple,  it  has  the  advantage  of 
leaving  to  time  the  final  decision.  The  personal  names  are  all  put  in  the  genitive 
case,  following  the  precedent  set  by  the  Zoological  Commission  on  terminology. 
Thus  Poupart's  ligament  becomes  Lig.  inguinale  [Pouparti].  In  time  it  will 
be  known  whether  it  is  to  be  called  ultimately  the  inguinal  ligament  or  by  Pou- 
part's name. 

Another  matter  which  the  Commission  had  to  decide  concerned  the  anatom- 
ical terms  used  in  the  medical  specialties, — e.  g.,  in  neurology,  ophthalmology, 
otology,  and  laryngology.  In  recent  years  clinicians  have  been  reworking  the 
anatomy  of  their  special  domains  quite  independently  of  the  anatomical  labora- 
tories. An  examination  of  the  literature  of  the  specialties  reveals  an  anatom- 
ical terminology  and  description  which  varies  markedly  from  the  language  and 
presentation  of  the  ordinary  anatomical  text-books.  The  Commission  soon 
convinced  itself  that  the  creation  of  this  special  language  was  due  to  the  insuffi- 
ciency of  the  anatomies  of  the  schools ;  it  was  its  duty,  therefore,  to  accept  the  terms 
introduced  by  the  specialists  or  to  supply  better  ones.  While  the  average  medi- 
cal student  cannot,  in  his  course  in  anatomy,  be  expected  to  master  completely 
the  anatomical  terms  of  all  the  medical  specialties,  still,  as  far  as  his  training 
goes  in  that  direction,  he  has  the  right  to  demand  that  it  shall  be  correct  and 
modern.  For  completeness'  sake,  therefore,  the  Commission  has  included  a  full 
list  of  the  names  of  macroscopic  structures  in  the  special  organs,  being  led  to  do 
so  by  the  repeated  assurance  of  distinguished  specialists  that  they  were  ready  to 
accept  the  nomenclature  of  the  anatomists  as  soon  as  it  covered  their  needs. 

8  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

It  is  surprising  to  find  how  few  really  new  terms  were  coined  by  the  Com- 
mission. Indeed,  the  first  plan  was  so  conservative  that  it  expected  to  make  no 
new  terms  at  all  but  only  to  choose  the  most  suitable  terms  then  in  use  in  the 
text-books.  Fortunately  this  plan  was  not  adhered  to.  The  only  terms  avail- 
able in  the  text-books  for  some  structures  wxre  antiquated  and  unworthy  of  re- 
tention; but,  worse  and  oftener,  among  the  terms  used  in  the  text-books  are 
some  that  are  employed  by  one  author  in  one  sense  and  by  another  in  another, 
owing,  in  certain  cases  at  least,  to  obscure  or  inexact  views.  The  Commission 
was  therefore  sometimes  compelled  to  search  the  bibliography,  to  study  dis- 
sections, and  even  to  make  original  investigations  in  connection  with  a  given 
term.  For  the  sake  of  clarity  and  accuracy  a  certain  number  of  new  terms 
had  to  be  introduced,  and  in  the  explanatory  notes  which  accompanied  the 
publication  of  the  BNA  Professor  His  has  indicated  the  exact  meaning  of  these 
new  terms.  Now  that  the  new  anatomical  text-books  and  atlases  are  being 
written  in  the  language  of  the  BNA  the  student  and  physician  will  have  no 
difficulty  in  understanding  the  few  terms  which  otherwise  might  have  seemed 
unfamiliar  to  him.  The  fact,  however,  remains  that  the  list  consists  chiefly  of 
carefully  selected  old  names;  it  gives  quite  a  wrong  impression,  therefore,  to 
speak  of  the  BNA  as  the  "new  terminology"  or  "new  nomenclature."* 

The  adoption  of  the  BNA  in  America  and  in  Great  Britain. 

Having  reviewed  the  history  of  the  origin  and  construction  of  the  BNA 
let  us  now  turn  for  a  moment  to  the  matter  of  its  adoption  in  this  and 
in  other  English-speaking  countries.  It  was  thought  by  some,  at  first,  that 
there  would  be  great  difficulties  in  the  way. 

(i)  Thus,  though  granting  the  desirabihty  of  an  anatomical  terminology 
which  shall  be  the  same  in  all  civihzed  countries,  some  think  that  the  time  is  not 
yet  ripe  for  it;  the  needs  of  the  anatomists  of  different  countries  as  regards 
anatomical  terms  are,  they  argue,  not  yet  fully  identical.  When  it  is  remembered, 
however,  that  the  terms  of  the  BNA  deal  only  with  well-established  gross  anatom- 
ical structures  and  do  not  relate  to  microscopic  parts  or  to  parts  concerning 
which  views  are  still  unsettled,  it  is  not  difficult  to  conceive  of  international 
cooperation  in  the  use  of  them  for  the  sake  of  uniformity.  The  work  of  all 
anatomists,  physiologists,  biologists,  pathologists  and  clinicians  would  be 
made  much  easier  thereby.  The  speed  of  progress  in  these  days  has  compelled 
every  scientific  medical  man  to  read  articles  on  his  subject  appearing  in  several 
languages;  unless  he  does  so  he  falls  hopelessly  behind  his  colleagues.  Even 
medical  students,  in  the  schools  with  the  higher  requirements,  are  now  asked  to 
read  one  or  two  modern  languages  other  than  their  own  before  admission. 
How  obviously  the  reading  of  medical  articles  in  the  international  bibliography 
would  be  facilitated  if  all  writers  would  make  it  a  point  to  use  the  same  ana- 
tomical terms  in  texts  and  at  the  sides  of  illustrative  plates  and  figures! 
Certainly  the  vast  majority  of  the  terms  of  the  BNA  would  be  understandable 
of  all  and  agreeable  to  all.  Even  if  a  small  residue  of  names  might  be  found 
objectionable  and  remain  unused  in  each  country,  it  would  matter  but  Httle, 
though  most  of  us,  surely,  would  be  willing  temporarily,  for  the  sake  of  uni- 
formity, to  use  a  few  terms  not  wholly  to  our  liking. 

(2)  There  are,  it  is  said,  a  few  anatomists  in  America  and  in  England 
who  are  prejudiced  against  the  BNA  because  it  was  prepared  by  the  German 
Anatomical  Society  and  is  largely  the  result  of  the  work  of  German  anatomists. 

*  Through  an  oversight  in  proof-reading,  I  have  myself  fallen  into  this  error  in  my 
**  Laboratory  Manual." 

The  Adoption  of  the  BNA  9 

Aside  from  the  facts  referred  to  above — that  the  Anatomical  Society  had  almost 
as  many  non-German  as  German  members  and  that  the  Commission  on  Ter- 
minology contained  English,  Belgian  and  Italian  anatomists  as  well  as  German, 
Austrian  and  Swiss — it  would  not,  it  seems  to  me,  have  mattered  much,  or  hin- 
dered its  acceptance  by  us,  if  the  BNA  had  been  wholly  German  in  origin.  If 
anatomists  of  worthily  world-wide  fame  like  His,  Toldt,  Waldeyer,  Krause, 
and  their  colleagues  are  willing  and  able  to  give  a  large  part  of  their  time  and 
energies  for  six  years  to  such  a  task,  to  secure  the  money  to  defray  the  expense 
thereof,  and  then  to  present  it  freely  to  the  rest  of  us, — if  what  they  have  done 
is  really  excellent, — are  we  to  be  sulky  and  reject  it  simply  because  it  was  "  made 
in  Germany"?  I  cannot  believe  that  any  one  who  reflects  for  a  moment  can  be 
other  than  extremely  grateful  for  the  very  valuable  gift  these  men  have  made  us; 
such  a  Chauvinistic  attitude  as  I  have  described  can  surely  not  be  assumed  by  more 
than  a  minute  minority.  On  the  contrary,  it  is  characteristic  of  the  people  of 
this  country  that  they  seek  out  and  adopt  as  their  own  the  "best"  wherever  it 
is  to  be  found,  even  if  it  chance  to  be  "  made  in  Thibet"  or  in  Timbuctoo. 

(3)  The  fact  that  the  list  of  terms  is  written  entirely  in  the  Latin  language 
has  been  the  ground  of  objection  on  the  part  of  a  few.  But  this,  I  feel  sure,  is 
due  to  a  misunderstanding  of  the  intention  of  the  Commission.  Its  members  had 
no  idea  that,  in  actual  use,  the  Latin  form  would  always  be  employed ;  it  is  matter 
of  indifference  whether  one  says  "biceps  muscle"  or  "musculus  biceps,"  "fem- 
oral nerve"  or  "nervus  femoralis,"  "temporal  bone"  or  "os  temporale,"  "yellow 
spot"  or  "  macula  lutea."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  a  student  learning  an  anatomical 
term  for  the  first  time  will  usually  find  that  the  Latin  term  goes  as  trippingly 
on  the  tongue,  often  more  so,  than  its  English  equivalent.  There  are  marked 
individual  preferences,  however,  in  this  regard  and  I  have  known  some  teachers 
and  students  who  would  fly  from  a  Latinized  form  as  though  from  Satan".  Cer- 
tainly in  this  country  fewer  teachers  than  in  Germany  use  the  Latin  consistently, 
though,  as  the  feeling  for  precision  and  uniformity  grows,  it  is  possible  that  the 
custom  may  increase,  in  which  event  all  the  Latin  names  would  actually  become 
English  words,  as  has  already  happened  with  conjunctiva,  retina,  plexus,  fornix, 
thalamus,  ganglion,  ependyma,  cranium,  abdomen,  pelvis,  perineum,  and  of  the 
like  many  more.  The  Commission  at  first  had  the  idea  of  placing  translations 
for  the  various  languages  in  parallel  columns  with  the  Latin  names,  but  wisely, 
I  think,  refrained  therefrom,  thus  leaving  everyone  free  to  supply  the  equiv- 
alent in  his  own  tongue  as  he  will.  In  the  German  dissecting-rooms,  even,  the 
Latin  forms  are  not  strictly  adhered  to;  one  hears  "Rlickenmark"  rather  than 
"Medulla  spinalis,"  "Kopfnicker"  (not  " Brustschliasselzitzenfortsatzmuskel ") 
rather  than  "M.  sternocleidomastoideus."  It  is  in  books,  and  more  particu-- 
larly  in  atlases,  that  it  is  especially  desirable  that  the  BNA  be  used  in  its  Latin 
form.  Where  there  is,  too,  any  likelihood  of  international  use  of  book  or  altas, 
or  of  translation  from  one  tongue  into  another,  it  would  be  helpful  if  this  rule 
were  followed. 

(4)  It  has  been  objected,  further,  that  since  English  and  American  text- 
books have  been  written  without  regard  to  the  BNA,  students  and  teachers 
will  only  add  the  burden  of  a  lot  of  additional  names  to  their  already  overcrowded 
memories, — that  we  shall  have  a  "confusion  worse  confounded"  than  before. 
It  has  been  asserted,  tooo,  that  students  passing  from  anatomical  laboratories  in 
which  the  BNA  is  employed  into  the  clinics  which  are  manned  by  professors 
who  learned  their  anatomy  years  ago  will  taken  with  them  a  tongue  unintelligible 
to  their  instructors  and  will  find  in  use  there  a  form  of  anatomical  language  un- 
known to  themselves. 

lo  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

There  is  a  minimum  of  truth  in  these  objections,  but  the  difficulties  to  be 
encountered  are  far  less  real  than  would  at  first  sight  appear.  For,  in  the  first 
place,  experience  has  taught  that  the  use  of  the  BNA  along  with  the  older 
text-books  is  not  an  impracticable  task.  The  older  books  contain  a  majority 
of  the  BNA  terms  and  a  great  many  others  besides,  so  that  the  use  of  the  BNA 
resolves  itself,  in  these  circumstances,  largely  into  an  emphasizing  of  the  names 
of  choice  and  the  omission  of  the  unnecessary  synonyms;  the  addition  of  the 
few  new  terms  required  meets  with  no  difficulty  if  the  instructors  be  well  versed 
in  them.  Since  Professor  Mall  called  my  attention  to  the  BNA  in  1895  and 
recommended  it  to  me  I  have  used  it  more  or  less  consistently  and  with  satis- 
faction ever  since  in  my  anatomical  and  clinical  teaching  in  Baltimore  and  in 
Chicago.  Other  American  teachers  who  have  done  the  same  tell  me  that  they 
have  found  its  employment  easy  and  rewarding,  and  students,  often  unsolicited, 
express  marked  approval  of  the  BNA  terms  where  they  differ  from  those  for- 
merly in  use.  The  BNA  is  now  used  regularly  in  several  of  the  American 
anatomical  laboratories  and,  in  large  part  though  not  exclusively,  in  others. 

That  the  student's  text-books  and  atlases  should  be  written  in  the  BNA 
is,  nevertheless,  obviously  desirable.  In  1899,  in  writing  a  book  on  the  nervous 
system,  I  found  it  satisfactory  to  employ  it  (with  minor  exceptions),  exclusively, 
for  the  domains  which  it  covered.  Soon  after,  in  the  dissecting-room  teaching  in 
Chicago,  I  was  impressed  with  the  idea  that  the  student's  task  could  be  greatly 
simplified  if  a  guide  to  dissection  were  written  in  terms  of  the  BNA,  each  term 
being  brought  in  at  the  moment  the  pupil  meets  with  the  structure  named  in 
his  practical  work.  To  meet  this  need,  I  prepared  and  had  published,  with 
the  help  of  Drs.  D.  D.  Lewis  and  D.  G.  Revell,  in  1904,  "A  Laboratory  Manual 
of  Human  Anatomy."  Meanwhile,  three  excellent  anatomical  atlases, — those 
of  Spalteholz,  Sobotta  and  Toldt, — had  appeared  in  Germany,  each  with  the 
BNA  terms  printed  at  the  sides  of  the  figures.  In  order  to  make  the  task  of 
students  and  teachers  still  lighter,  and  again  encouraged  by  Professor  Mall, 
I  undertook  during  the  years  1 900-1 904  the  translation  into  English  of  the  text 
of  Professor  Spalteholz's  work,  and  since  then  its  beautiful  illustrations  and 
brief,  precise,  anatomical  descriptions  have  been  available  to  American  and 
English  readers.  The  kind  way  in  which  these  books  have  been  received  by 
American  anatomists  and  clinicians  makes  it  evident  that  there  exists  in  this 
country  a  warm  sympathy  with  the  movement  to  render  anatomical  terminology 
more  simple,  less  cumbersome,  and  more  precise. 

In  1902,  Dr.  Hardesty  used  the  BNA  exclusively  in  his  useful  "Neurological 
Technique,"  and  in  the  small  text  of  Dr.  Whitehead  (1900)  and  the  monograph 
of  Dr.  Sabin  (1901),  both  on  the  brain,  it  had  also  been  adopted.  Indications, 
indeed,  now  point  to  its  general  acceptance  by  American  and  British  writers. 
Besides  Spalteholz's  Atlas  that  of  Sobotta  and  that  of  Toldt  are  now  available 
in  English  translation.  The  new  edition  of  that  popular  text-book,  Morris's 
Anatomy,  edited  by  Mr.  Henry  Morris,  of  London,  and  Professor  McMur- 
rich,  of  Ann  Arbor,  just  now  being  published,  is  couched  in  the  BNA  terms 
It  would  take  too  long  to  cite  all  the  books  and  important  articles  in  which  these 
names  figure.  A  monograph  recently  published  by  Dr.  Potter,  of  St.  Louis, 
entitled  "  Topographical  Anatomy  of  the  Viscera  of  the  Thorax  and  Abdomen, " 
should  not,  however,  be  omitted,  as  it  is  most  valuable  as  a  companion  to  any  one 
studying,  for  the  first  time,  a  series  of  cross-sections  through  the  trunk  of  a 
human  being;  the  BNA  names  are  used  throughout  in  its  plates  and  descrip- 
tions. That  biologists  find  the  BNA  satisfactory  is  indicated  by  its  use  in 
Professor  J.  B.  Johnston's  book,  "The  Anatomy  of  the  Nervous  System  of 

The  Future  of  Anatomical  Terminology  ii 

Vertebrates."  And,  now  that  the  newest  edition  of  Gould's  Medical  Dictionary 
is  also  to  consider  the  BNA,  there  would  seem  to  be  no  longer  reason  for 
delay  in  general  recognition  and  employment. 

The  assumption  that  students  who  have  been  taught  the  BNA  and  their 
clinical  teachers  will  be  reciprocally  embarrassed  in  one  another's  presence — 
that  a  sort  of  anatomical  Babel  will  prevail — gives  scarcely  due  credit  to  either 
student  or  clinician.  For,  on  the  one  hand,  the  student  is  sure  during  this  tran- 
sition period  to  become  acquainted  quickly  with  the  old  synonyms  of  the  few 
new  anatomical  terms  foreign  to  the  ordinary  clinical  vocabulary;  he  can  scarcely 
escape,  for  instance,  learning  that  clinicians  almost  invariably  speak  of  the 
"atria"  of  the  heart  as  its  "auricles,"  or  of  the  "omental  bursa"  as  the  "lesser 
peritoneum."  And,  on  the  other  hand,  we  may  be  certain  that  the  modern  sci- 
entific clinician,  worthy  of  a  clinical  chair  in  a  medical  school,  will  not  be  un- 
familiar with  those  more  recent  studies  in  the  anatomy  of  his  field  which  are  of 
suflGicient  permanent  importance  to  have  been  reflected  in  the  BNA.  The 
internist  who  has  not  brought  his  anatomy  of  the  lungs,  the  heart,  the  liver,  the 
spleen,  the  kidneys  and  the  peritoneum  at  least  up  to  the  level  of  precision 
indicated  by  the  BNA  list,  handicaps  himself  in  his  work.  So  with  the  surgeon 
with  regard  to  the  bones,  the  articulations,  the  blood-vessels  and  nerves,  the 
neck,  the  abdomen  and  the  pelvis.  There  need  be  little  fear,  we  may  feel  toler- 
ably sure,  of  delinquency  here.  Should  the  nobler  motives  prove  ineffective — 
they  will  not — the  fierceness  of  competition  among  clinicians,  the  rivalry  for 
prestige  among  the  occupants  of  clinical  chairs,  would  from  now  on,  if  it  has  not 
always  so  done  in  the  past,  compel  the  teachers  of  the  practical  branches  to 
keep  pace  with  progress  in  the  fundamentals.  We  have  seen  above,  as  a  mat- 
ter of  fact,  how  clinicians  in  the  medical  specialties  have  not  only  kept  pace 
with  the  anatomists  but,  in  part,  have  outstripped  them  in  the  race.  Investi- 
gating the  anatomy  of  their  own  special  domains  anew  and  independently,  their 
inquiries  have  expanded  knowledge  and  necessitated  an  enrichment  of  anatomical 
vocabulary.  This  process  has  begun  in  America.  That  it  will  go  on  and  be- 
come an  engine  of  great  power  in  furthering  the  development  of  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  human  form  in  regions  yet  obscure,  who  can  doubt? 

The  Future  of  Anatomical  Terminology. 

No  matter  how  many  revisions  of  terminology  are  made,  and  entirely 
independently  of  those  who  make  them,  we  can  be  sure  that,  in  the  long  run,  only 
those  names  will  survive  which  are  wisely  selected,  which  are  precise  in  expression, 
and  which  are  organically  connected  with  whatever  great  general  plan  our  ana- 
tomical nomenclature  ultimately  assumes.  Anatomical  terms,  to  live,  must 
satisfy  the  needs  of,  and  be  adopted  by,  a  majority  of  anatomists  and  clinicians. 
It  would  be  folly  to  attempt  to  force  the  use  of  the  BNA  or  any  other  list  of 
anatomical  terms  upon  any  man  or  group  of  men.  A  terminology  must  rely 
upon  its  intrinsic  merits,  not  upon  the  influence  of  authority.  The  better  it  satis- 
fies the  needs  of  teaching  and  investigation,  the  greater  its  chances  of  general 
acceptance  and  permanence.  Those  of  us  who  are  convinced  of  the  value  of 
the  BNA  should  set  an  example  by  using  it  and  may  recommend  its  use  to  others. 
More  than  this  we  ought  not  to  do. 

The  fact  should  be  emphasized  that  the  BNA  makes  no  attempt  to  limit 
the  language  of  research,  but  only  to  supply  a  list  of  simple  terms,  free  from 
ambiguity,  for  common  use  in  the  medical  schools.  Research  must,  of  course, 
retain  absolute  freedom  of  expression.  Investigators,  to  make  themselves 
understood,  are  compelled  to  use  temporarily  many  expressions  consciously 

12  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

wholly  provisional  in  character.  Only  when  time  has  brought  a  certain  repose 
to  scientific  activity  in  a  given  region  do  more  permanent  terms  crystallize  out. 

It  should  be  easy  in  a  country  like  America,  for  anatomists  to  agree  with  their 
colleagues  in  the  rest  of  the  world  upon  the  adoption  of  a  common  set  of  terms 
for  school  use.  It  is  fair  to  assume  that  the  tendency  to  cooperation,  so  charac- 
teristic of  the  energies  of  this  country,  notably  manifest  in  industrial  combinations 
no  less  than  in  the  team-work  of  athletes,  will  not  be  found  lacking  among 

Even  when  compromises  have  to  be  made,  there  is  a  certain  special  honor 
and  satisfaction  to  be  derived  from  the  sacrifices  involved  when  they  contribute 
to  the  common  weal.  That  some  concessions  must  necessarily  be  made  in  using 
the  BNA  cannot  be  denied;  almost  every  cooperative  measure  demands  some 
self-denial  among  participants.  This  need  not,  however,  be  great.  Where  the 
list  does  not  supply  in  full  the  requirements  of  the  individual  teacher,  there  is 
no  reason  why  he  should  not  extend  it  at  will.  On  the  other  hand,  where  the 
list  contains  terms  in  excess  of  the  needs  of  a  given  instructor  or  school,  it  is  an 
easy  matter  to  omit  those  which  seem  superfluous.  It  may  seem  a  little  hard 
for  one  who  has  spoken  of  the  ''M.  complexus"  all  his  fife  to  get  used  to  call- 
ing it  the  "M.  semispinalis  capitis,"  or  for  another  who  has  been  brought  up 
with  an  ''anterior  crural"  to  abandon  it  for  the  "femoral"  nerve.  But  when 
the  good  reasons  for  the  change  are  known  and  appreciated,  good-will  will  carry 
one  far.  It  is  only  when  a  term  is  found  to  be  incompatible  with  one's  scien- 
tific convictions  that  reasonable  difficulty  arises.  The  BNA  has,  however, 
been  constructed  with  such  great  care  and  has  so  sedulously  avoided  affixing 
labels  to  structures  still  in  dispute  that  we  need  have  little  fear  on  that  score. 
Even  should  there  be  a  few  terms,  or  even  a  few  hundred,  which  we  find  hard 
at  this  time  to  digest,  the  general  acceptance  of  the  other  4000  will  be  a  great 
gain,  cutting  the  labors  of  students,  as  it  will,  in  two. 

That  conditions  will  arise,  perhaps  soon,  when  another  revision  will  be 
desirable  and  demanded  there  can  be  no  doubt.  Investigation  is  ever  extending; 
our  criteria  of  values  are  constantly  changing;  scientific  needs  in  terminology 
vary,  in  spite  of  us,  with  the  years;  at  intervals  revision  becomes  unavoidable. 
But  with  foundations  so  well  laid  as  in  the  BNA,  a  subsequent  review  should 
be  facilitated.  The  development  of  the  BNA  has  taught  us  the  necessity  of 
observing  certain  rules  in  the  coining  of  new  anatomical  terms.  If  these  rules  be 
good  ones,  the  work  of  extension  will  be  easy.  It  would  not  be  difficult,  for 
instance,  to  merge  the  names  of  this  list  into  a  nomenclature  which  considers, 
more  satisfactorily  than  the  BNA  does,  the  needs  to  which  a  fusion  of  Human 
Anatomy  with  Comparative  Anatomy  gives  rise.  And  I,  for  one,  hope  that  such 
a  "merger"  may  be  promoted  in  our  time.  I  trust  too  that,  at  another  revision, 
the  terms  in  Professor  Wilder's  lists  which  differ  from  those  of  the  BNA  may  be 
carefully  considered,  and  that  his  terms,  where  they  are  better  than  those  of  the 
present  BNA,  may  be  adopted. 

Of  one  thing  I  am  convinced, — cooperation  is,  from  now  on,  essential  for 
the  welfare  of  a  satisfactory  anatomical  language.  Simplicity,  accuracy,  and 
serial  connection  will  be  favored  if  anatomists  agree  to  use  terms,  in  common, 
for  the  structures  studied  in  the  schools.  The  teacher's  work  will  be  simplified 
and  the  pupil's  task  will  be  lightened;  instruction  will  be  unhampered,  research 
will  flourish  and  anatomical  science  will  gain  in  dignity  and  in  precision. 

Nomina  anatomica' 

Termini,  situm  ct  dircctioncm  partium  corporis 


Termini  generates 



















Termini  ad  extre 











Superficialis  [sublimis] 



^  In  the  lists  the  following  explanations  are  necessary: 

1.  Oval  brackets  (  )  indicate  variations  (Varietates  anatomicae). 

2.  Angular  brackets  [  ]  contain  explanatory  additions,  among  which  are  included  double 

names  and  personal  names. 

3.  Italics  are  used  for  ontogenetic  expressions  (e.g.,  M.  decidua,  A.  umbilicalis,  etc.) 


Anatomical  names' 

Terms  indicating  the  position  and  direction  of 
parts  of  the  body 

General  terms 




























Terms  relating  to  the  extremities 







*  The  letters  O.  T.  following  a  name  indicate  that  it  belongs  to  the  older  terminology. 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Termini  ^eneraies 









































































































General  Anatomical  Terms 


General  Anatomical  Terms 



Wing  (contraction  of 

Little  hollow- 


Handle  or  loop 









Small  channel 




Little  head 


Small  piece  of  flesh 



Hole  or  cavity 

Little  chamber  or  cell 




Column  or  pillar 

Connection  or  commis- 


Wreath,  garland,  or  crown 


Little  body  or  corpuscle 


Leg  or  limb 

Decussation  or  crossing 


Little  duct 


Eminence  or  protuberance 




Face  or  surface 

Bandage  or  band 

A  little  bundle  or  packet 

Fibre  or  filament 



Fissure  or  cleft 



Little  sac  or  bag 

Hole,  aperture,  or  opening 


Arch  or  vault 

Ditch  or  trench 

Little  fossa 


Little  pit 

Cord  or  rein       • 


Thin  rope,  cord,  or  string 

Little  knee  or  knot 



Little  skein 



Liquid  or  fluid 



Incision  or  notch 


Intestine  or  inward 



Gap,  defect 

Plate  or  layer 

Broad;    flank 


Border  or  fringe 

Threshold,  boundary 


Fluid  or  liquid 

A  little  lobe 


Spot  , 



Way  or  passage 



Limb   or  member 





Nucleus  or  kernel 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 




Os  [oris] 


Tunica  propria 

Os  [ossis] 
































Tela  conjunctiva 



Tela  elastica 













Viscus  [viscera] 













General  Anatomical  Terms 






Papilla  or  nipple 









Prominence  or  projection 

Point  or  small  puncture 


Little  branch  or  twig 


Raphe  or  seam 


Region  or  territory 

Net  or  network 

Slit  or  fissure 


Little  septum 


Spine  or  thorn 
Layer  or  covering 
Furrow,  stripe,  or  ridge 
Stroma,  or  bed 

Sulcus  or  furrow 
Ribbon;  tape-worm 
A  cover 

Connecting  web 
Elastic  web 

Round  swelling  or  protuber- 
Little  beam 

Trigone  or  triangle 

Swelling  or  hump 
Tubule  or  little  tube 

Coat  or  covering 

Proper  coat 

Boss  or  prominence 

Little    cluster   or 



Wall  or  fortification 



Sail,  covering  or  cur- 

Crown  of  head 


Vesicle  or  little  blad- 

Vestibule  or  ante- 

Shaggy  hair 

Organ,   internal 


Girdle  or  zone 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Partes  corporis  humani 


Tr  u  n  c  u  s 













O  cuius 


Palpebra  superior 

Sulcus  nasolabialis 

Palpebra  inferior 


Rima  palpebrarum 

Labium  superius 

Bulbus  oculi 

Labium  inferius 


Rima  oris 

Sulcus  infrapalpebralis 

Cavum  oris 



Dorsum  nasi 

Bucca  [Mala] 

Apex  nasi 

Sulcus  mentolabialis 

Ala  nasi 








Prominentia  laryngea 





Cavum  thoracis 

Columna  vertebralis 


Canalis  spinalis 


Papilla  mammae 

Parts  of  the  Human  Body 


Parts  of  the  human  body 







Crown  of  the  head 


Sinciput;  bregma 



External  ear,  or  pinna 





Upper  eyelid 

Nasolabial  furrow 

Lower  eyelid 

Infranasal  depression 


Upper  lip 


Lower  lip 


Mouth  slit 

Infrapalpebral  furrow 

Mouth  cavity 



Back  of  the  nose 


Tip  of  the  nose 

Mentolabial  furrow 

Wing  of  the  nose 



Neck  (posterior  part) 




Laryngeal  prominence 



T.  Adam's  apple) 




Thoracic  cavity 

Vertebral  column 


Spinal  canal 

Mammary  gland 

Mammary  nipple 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Cavum  abdominis 


Scrobiculus  cordis 





Cavum  pelvis 


Mons  pubis 

Crena  ani 



Nates  [Clunes] 

Extremitas  superior 



Plica  axillaris  anterior 


Plica  axillaris  posterior 



Dorsum  manus 


Vola  manus  [Palma] 

Facies  anterior 


Facies  posterior 


Facies  lateralis 

Digiti  manus 

Facies  medialis 

PoUex  [Digitus  I] 

Sulcus  bicipitalis  lateralis 

Index  [      "     II] 

Sulcus  bicipitalis  medialis 

Digitus  medius      [Digitus  III] 


Digitus  annularis  [     "        IV] 


Digitus  minimus   [     "          V] 

Facies  dorsalis 

Facies  dorsales 

Facies  volaris 

Facies  volares 

Margo  radialis 

Margines  radiales 

Margo  ulnaris 

Margines  ulnares 

Extremitas  inferior 


Facies  anterior 
Facies  posterior 
Facies  lateralis 
Facies  medialis 

Sulcus  glutaeus 



Facies  anterior 

Facies  posterior 


Malleolus  lateralis 

Malleolus  medialis 



Parts  of  the  Human  Body 



Abdominal  cavity 


"  Heart  fossa" ;  pit 

of  stomach                     Loin 



Pelvic  cavity 


Pubic  eminence 

Anal  cleft 





T  extremity 

Axilla;  prominence  of  shoulder 


Anterior  axillary  fold 


Posterior  axillary  fold 


Acromion;  tip  of  shoulder 

Back  of  the  hand 


Palm  of  the  hand 

Anterior  surface 

Thenar  or  radial  palm 

Posterior  surface 

Hypothenar  or  ulnar  palm 

Lateral  surface 


Medial  surface 


Lateral  bicipital  groove 

Index  finger 

Medial  bicipital  groove 

Middle  finger 


Ring  finger 


Little  finger 

Dorsal  surface 

Dorsal  surfaces 

Volar  surface 

Volar  surfaces 

Radial  margin 

Radial  margins 

Ulnar  margin 

Ulnar  margins 

Lower  extremities 


Anterior  surface 

Posterior  surface 

Lateral  surface 

Medial  surface 
Gluteal  furrow 

Posterior  surface  of  knee 



Anterior  surface 

Posterior  surface 


I^ateral  malleolus 

Medial  malleolus 

Root  of  foot 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Dorsum  pedis 


Margo  pedis  lateralis 

Margo  pedis  medialis 


Digiti  pedis 

Hallux  [Digitus  I] 

Digiti  II-IV 

Digitus  minimus  [Digitus  V] 

Facies  dorsales 

Facies  plantares 

Margines  laterales 

Margines  mediales 


Os  longum 

Os  breve 

Os  planum 

Os  pneumaticum 



Vertebrae  cervicales 
Vertebrae  thoracales 
Vertebrae  lumbales 
Vertebrae  sacrales 
Vertebrae  coccygeae 
Corpus  vertebrae 
Fovea  costalis  superior 

Fovea  costalis  inferior 

Synchondrosis  epiphyseos   Cavum  meduUare 

Facies  articularis 
Substantia  compacta 
Substantia  corticalis 
Substantia  spongiosa 

Medulla  ossium 
Medulla  ossium  flava 
Medulla  ossium  rubra 
Foramen  nutricium 
Canalis  nutricius 

Canalis  vertebralis 
Foramen  vertebrale 
Arcus  vertebrae 
Radix  arcus  vertebrae 
Incisura  vertebralis  superior 
Incisura  vertebralis  inferior 
Foramen  intervertebrale 
Sulcus  n.  spinalis 
Processus  spinosus 
Vertebra  prominens 
Processus  transversus 
Fovea  costalis  transversalis 

Columna  vertebralis 

Tuberculum     anterius     [vertebrarum 

Tuberculum      caroticum      [vertebrae 

cervicalis  VI] 
Foramen  transversarium 
Tuberculum     posterius     [vertebrarum 

Processus  articulares  superiores 
Facies  articulares  superiores 
Processus  articulares  inferiores 
Facies  articulares  inferiores 
Processus  costarius 
Processus     accessorius     [vertebrarum 

Processus  mammillaris 


Massa  lateralis 
Arcus  anterior 
Tuberculum  anterius 
Foveae  articulares  superiores 
Facies  articulares  inferiores 
Fovea  dentis 



Back  of  the  foot 


Lateral  margin  of  the  foot 

Medial  margin  of  the  foot 



Great  toe 

II-IV  toes 

Little  toe 

Dorsal  surfaces 
Plantar  surfaces 
Lateral  margins 
Medial  margins 


Long  bone 
Short  bone 
Flat  bone 
Hollow  bone 

Epiphyseal  synchondrosis 
Apophysis  ("excrescence") 
Articular  surface 
Compact  substance 

Epiphysis  ("  accretion")  Cortical  substance 
Shaft  Spongy  substance 

Medullary  cavity 
Bone  marrow 
Yellow  bone  marrow 
Red  bone  marrow 
Nutrient  foramen 
Nutrient  canal 

Vertebral  column  or  spine 

Cervical  vertebrae 

Thoracic  vertebrae 

Lumbar  vertebrae 

Sacral  vertebrae 

Coccygeal  vertebrae 

Body  of  vertebrae 

Superior  costal   pit  (O.  T.  demifacet 

for  head  of  rib) 
Inferior  costal  pit  (O.  T.  demifacet  for 

head  of  rib) 
Vertebral  canal 
Vertebral  foramen 
Vertebral  arch 

Root  of  vertebral  arch  (O.  T.  pedicle) 
Superior  vertebral  notch 
Inferior  vertebral  notch 
Intervertebral  foramen 
Groove  for  spinal  nerve 
Spinous  process 

Prominent  vertebra  (seventh  cervical) 
Transverse  process 
Costal  pit  of  transverse  process  (O.  T. 

facet  for  tubercle  of  rib) 

Anterior  tubercle  [of  cervical  verte- 

Carotid  tubercle  [of  sixth  cervical  ver- 

Foramen  of  transverse  process 

Posterior  tubercle  [of  cervical  vertebrae] 

Superior  articular  processes 

Superior  articular  surfaces 

Inferior  articular  processes 

Inferior  articular  surfaces 

Costal  process 

Accessory  process  of  lumbar  vertebrae 

Mammillary  process 


Lateral  mass 
Anterior  arch 
Anterior  tubercle 
Superior  articular  pits 
Inferior  articular  surfaces 
Pit  of  the  tooth 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Arcus  posterior 

Sulcus  arteriae  vertebralis 

Tuberculum  posterius 



Facies  articularis  anterior 
Facies  articularis  posterior 

Os  sacrum 

Facies  dorsalis 

Facies  pelvina 

Basis  OSS.  sacri 

Processus  articularis  superior 


Pars  lateralis 
Facies  auricularis 
Tuberositas  sacralis 
Foramina  intervertebralia 
Foramina  sacralia  anteriora 
Lineae  transversae 
Foramina  sacralia  posteriora 
Crista  sacralis  media 
Cristae  sacrales  laterales 
Cristae  sacrales  articulares 
Cornua  sacralia 
Canalis  sacralis 
Hiatus  sacralis 
Apex  OSS.  sacri 

Os  coccygis 

Cornua  coccygea 



Costae  verae 

Costae  spuriae 

Os  costale 

Cartilago  costalis 

Capitulum  costae 

Facies  articularis  capituli  costae 

Crista  capituli 

Corpus  costae 

Tuberculum  costae 

Facies  articularis  tuberculi  costae 

Collum  costae 

Crista  colli  costae 

Angulus  costae 

Tuberculum  scaleni  [Lisfranci] 

Sulcus  subclaviae 

Tuberositas  costae  II 

Sulcus  costae 


Manubrium  sterni 
Angulus  sterni 
Synchondrosis  sternalis 
Corpus  sterni 
Planum  sternale 
Processus  xiphoideus 

Incisura  clavicularis 
Incisura  jugularis 

Incisurae  costales 
(Ossa  suprasternalia) 

Cavum  thoracis 
Apertura  thoracis  superior 
Apertura  thoracis  inferior 
Arcus  costarum 
Spatia  intercostalia 
Angulus  infrasternalis 
Sulcus  pulmonalis 

Ossa  cranii 

Os  basilare 

Os  occipitale 

Foramen  occipitale  magnum 
Pars  basilaris 
Sulcus  petrosus  inferior 
Pars  lateralis 



Posterior  arch 

Groove  for  vertebral,  artery 

Posterior  tubercle 

Epistropheus  ("a  turning")  (0.  T. 


Anterior  articular  surface 
Posterior  articular  surface 


Dorsal  surface 
Pelvic  surface 
Base  of  sacrum 
Superior  articular  process 
Promontory     (O.    T.     sacrovertebral 

Lateral  part 
Auricular  surface 
Sacral  tuberosity 
Intervertebral  foramina 
Anterior  sacral  foramina 
Transverse  lines 
Posterior  sacral  foramina 
Middle  sacral  crest 
Lateral  sacral  crests 
Articular  sacral  crests 
Sacral  horns 
Sacral  canal 
Sacral  hiatus 
Apex  of  sacrum 


Coccygeal  horns 


True  ribs 

False  ribs 

Rib  bone 

Rib  cartilage 

Head  of  the  rib 

Articular  surface  of  the  head  of  the  rib 

Crest  of  the  head 

Body  of  the  rib 

Tubercle  of  the  rib 

Articular  surface  of  the  tubercle  of  the 

Neck  of  the  rib 
Crest  of  neck  of  rib 
Angle  of  rib 

Scalene  tubercle  of  Lisfranc 
Subclavian  groove 
Tuberosity  of  the  second  rib 
Costal  groove 

Breast  Bone 

Handle  of  sternum 

Angle  of  sternum 

Sternal  synchondrosis 

Body  of  sternum  (O.  T.  gladiolus) 

Sternal  plain,  or  anterior  surface 

Xiphoid     process    (O.     T.     ensiform 

Clavicular  notch 
Jugular      notch     (O.    T.     presternal 

Notches  for  the  ribs 
Suprasternal  bones 

Thoracic  cavity 
Upper  thoracic  openmg 
Lower  thoracic  opening 
Arch  of  the  ribs 
Intercostal  spaces 
Infrasternal  angle 
Pulmonary  sulcus 

Bones  of  the  skull 

Basilar  bone 

Occipital  bone 

Large  occipital  foramen 
Basilar  part 

Inferior  petrosal  groove 
Lateral  part 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Squama  occipitalis 
Margo  mastoideus 
Margo  lambdoideus 
(Os  interparietale) 

Tuberculum  pharyngeum 
Condylus  occipitalis 
Canalis  condyloideus 

Canalis  hypoglossi 

Tuberculum  jugulare 
Incisura  jugularis 
Processus  jugularis 
Fossa  condyloidea 
Processus  intrajugularis 
Planum  occipitale 
Planum  nuchale 
Protuberantia  occipitalis  externa 
(Torus  occipitalis) 
Crista  occipitalis  externa 
Linea  nuchae  suprema 
Linea  nuchae  superior 
Linea  nuchae  inferior 
Eminentia  cruciata 
Protuberantia  occipitalis  interna 
Sulcus  sagittalis 

Sulcus  transversus 
(Processus  paramastoideus) 

Os  sphenoidale 

Sella  turcica 
Fossa  hypophyseos 

Dorsum  sellae 
Tuberculum  sellae 
Processus  clinoideus  medius 
Processus  clinoideus  posterior 
Sulcus  caroticus 

Lingula  sphenoidalis 

Crista  sphenoidalis 

Rostrum  sphenoidale 

Sinus  sphenoidalis 

Septum  sinuum  sphenoidalium 

Apertura  sinus  sphenoidalis 

Conchae  sphenoidales 


Ala     p  ar V  a 
Sulcus  chiasmatis 

Foramen  opticum 
Processus  clinoideus  anterior 
Fissura  orbitalis  superior 

Al  a    m  a  gn  a 
Facies  cerebralis 
Facies  temporalis 
Facies  sphenomaxillaris 
Facies  orbitalis 
Margo  zygomaticus 
Margo  frontalis 
Angulus  parietalis 
Margo  squamosus 
Crista  infratemporalis 

Foramen  rotundum 
Foramen  ovale 
Foramen  spinosum 
Spina  angularis 

Processus    pterygoideus 
Lamina  lateralis  processus  pterygoidei 
Lamina  medialis  processus  pterygoidei 
Fissura  pterygoidea 
Fossa  scaphoidea 
Processus  vaginalis 
Hamulus  pterygoideus 

Sulcus  hamuli  pterygoidei 

Fossa  pterygoidea 

Canalis  pterygoideus  [Vidii] 



Occipital   squama    ("scale") 

Mastoid  margin 

Lambdoid  margin 

Interparietal  bone 

Clivus  ("slope") 

Pharyngeal  tubercle 

Occipital  condyle 

Condyloid  canal  (O.  T.  posterior  con- 
dyloid  foramen) 

Hypoglossal  canal  (O.  T.  anterior 
condyloid  foramen) 

Jugular  tubercle 

Jugular  notch 

Jugular  process 

Condyloid  fossa 

Intra  jugular  process 

Occipital  plain 

Nuchal  plain 

External   occipital   protuberance 

Occipital  torus   ("swelling") 

External  occipital  crest 

Supreme  nuchal  line 

Superior  nuchal  line 

Inferior  nuchal  line 

Cruciate  eminence 

Internal    occipital    protuberance 

Sagittal  sulcus  (O.  T.  superior  longi- 
tudinal sulcus) 

Transverse  sulcus 

Paramastoid  process 

Sphenoid  bone 

Turkish  saddle 

Hypophyseal   fossa    (O.  T.    pituitary 

Back  of  sella 

Tubercle  of  sella  or  pommel 
Middle  clinoid  process 
Posterior  clinoid  process 
Carotid    sulcus     (O.     T.     cavernous 

Sphenoidal  tongue 

Sphenoidal    crest    (O.    T.    ethmoidal 

Sphenoidal  rostrum 
Sphenoidal  sinus 
Septum  of  sphenoidal  sinuses 
Opening  of  sphenoidal  sinus 
Sphenoidal  conchae  ("shell")   (O.  T. 

sphenoidal  turbinated  bones) 
Clivus  ("  slope") 

Small    wi  ng 

Sulcus   of   the   chiasma  (O.    T.   optic 

Optic  foramen 
Anterior  clinoid  process 
Superior  orbital  fissure 

Large  wing 

Cerebral  surface 

Temporal  surface 

Sphenomaxillary  surface 

Orbital  surface 

Zygomatic  margin 

Frontal  margin 

Parietal  angle 

Squamosal  margin 

Infratemporal  crest  (O.    T.  pterygoid 

Round  foramen 
Oval  foramen 
Spinous  foramen 
Angular  spine  (O.  T.  spinous  process) 

Pterygoid    process 

Lateral  layer  of  pterygoid  process 

Medial  layer  of  pterygoid  process 

Pterygoid  fissure 

Scaphoid  fossa 

Vaginal  process 

Pterygoid  hamulus   ("hook")    (O.  T. 

hamular  process) 
Sulcus  of  pterygoid  hamulus 
Pterygoid  fossa 
Pterygoid  canal  (O.  T.  Vidian  canal) 

22  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Canalis  pharyngeus  Apertura  externa  aquaeductus  vestibuli 

Canalis  basipharyngeus 

Sulcus  tubae  auditivae 

Sulcus  pterygopalatinus 

(Processus  pterygospinosus  [Civinini]) 

Os  temporale 
Pars     mastoidea 
Margo  occipitalis 
Processus  mastoideus 
Incisura  mastoidea 
Sulcus  sigmoideus 

Sulcus  a.  occipitalis 
Foramen  mastoideum 
Pars     petrosa   [Pyramis] 
Facies  anterior  pyramidis 
Facies  posterior  pyramidis 
Facies  inferior  pyramidis 
Apex  pyramidis 
Angulus  superior  pyramidis 
Angulus  anterior  pyramidis 
Angulus  posterior  pyramidis 
Sulcus  petrosus  superior 
Tegmen  tympani 
Eminentia  arcuata 

Canalis  facialis  [Falloppii] 

Hiatus  canalis  facialis 

Geniculum  canalis  facialis 

Sulcus  n.  petrosi  superficialis  majoris 

Sulcus  n.  petrosi  superficialis  minoris 

Impressio  trigemini 

Porus  acusticus  internus 
Meatus  acusticus  internus 
Fossa  subarcuata 
Aquaeductus  vestibuli 

Sulcus  petrosus  inferior 
Incisura  jugularis 
Processus  intra] ugularis 
Fossa  jugularis 
Canaliculus  mastoideus 
Sulcus  canaliculi  mastoidei 
Processus  styloideus 
Vagina  processus  styloidei 

Foramen  stylomastoideum 

Fossula  petrosa 

Canaliculus  tympanicus 

Sulcus  tympanicus 

Apertura  inferior  canaliculi  tympanic! 

Apertura  superior  canaliculi  tympanici 

Canaliculus  cochleae 

Apertura  externa  canaliculi  cochleae 

Canalis  caroticus 
Canaliculi  caroticotympanic! 
Canalis  musculotubarius 
Seraicanalis  m.  tensoris  tympan! 

Semicanalis  tubae  auditivae 

Septum  canalis  musculotubarii 
Cavum  tympani  (v.  Organon  auditus) 

Canaliculus  chordae  tympani 
Fissura  petrotympanica  [Glaseri] 

Fissura  petrosquamosa 
Pars     tympanica 
Annulus  tympanicus 
Meatus  acusticus  externus 
(Spina  supra  meatum) 
Fissura  tympanomastoidea 


Pharyngeal     canal     (O.   T.    pterygo- 
palatine canal) 
Basipharyngeal  canal 
Sulcus  of  auditory  tube 
Pterygopalatine  sulcus 
Pterygospinous  process 

Temporal  bone 

Mastoid  part 

Occipital  margin 

Mastoid  process 

Mastoid  notch  (O.  T.  digastric  fossa) 

Sigmoid    sulcus     (O.    T.    fossa    sig- 

Groove  for  the  occipital  artery 
Mastoid  foramen 
Petrous  part  (pyramid) 
Anterior  surface  of  pyramid 
Posterior  surface  of  pyramid 
Inferior  surface  of  pyramid 
Apex  of  pyramid 
Superior  angle  of  pyramid 
Anterior  angle  of  pyramid 
Posterior  angle  of  pyramid 
Superior  petrosal  groove 
Roof  of  tympanum 
Arcuate  eminence  (O.  T.  eminence  for 

superior  semicircular  canal) 
Facial  canal  (O.  T.  aqueduct  of  Fal- 

Hiatus  of  facial  canal  (O.  T.   hiatus 

Little  knee  of  facial  canal 
Groove    for    the    greater    superficial 

petrosal  nerve 
Groove     for    the     lesser     superficial 

petrosal  nerve 
Trigeminal  impression  (O.  T.  depres- 
sion for  Gasserian  ganglion) 
Internal  acoustic  pore 
Internal  acoustic  meatus 
Subarcuate  fossa 
Aqueduct  of  vestibule 

External  opening  of  aqueduct  of  vesti- 

Inferior  petrosal  groove 

Jugular  notch 

Intra  jugular  process 

Jugular  fossa 

Mastoid  canaliculus 

Sulcus  of  mastoid  canaliculus 

Styloid  process 

Sheath  of  styloid  process  (O.  T. 
vaginal  process) 

Stylomastoid  foramen 

Petrosal  fossula 

Tympanic  canaliculus 

Tympanic  sulcus 

Inferior  opening  of  tympanic  canal- 

Superior  opening  of  tympanic  canal- 
iculus (O.  T.  opening  for  smaller 
petrosal  nerve) 

Canaliculus  of  the  cochlea 

External  opening  of  the  canaliculus  of 
the  cochlea 

Carotid  canal 

Caroticotympanic  canaliculus 

Musculotubal  canal 

Semicanal  of  the  tensor  muscle  of  tym- 
panum (O.  T.  canal  for  tensor 
tympani  muscle) 

Semicanal  of  auditory  tube  (O.  T. 
canal  for  the  Eustachian  tube) 

Septum  of  the  musculotubal  canal 

Cavity  of  the  tympanum  (see  Organ  oj 

Canaliculus  of  cord  of  tympanum 

Petrotympanic  fissure  (O.  T.  Glaserian 

Petrosquamosal  fissure 

Tympanic    part 

Tympanic  ring 

External  acoustic  meatus 

Spine  above  meatus 

Tympanomastoid  fissure 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Spina  tympanica  major 
Spina  tympanica  minor 
Porus  acusticus  externus 
Squama     temporalis 
Margo  parietalis 
Incisura  parietalis 
Margo  sphenoidalis 
Facies  temporalis 
Processus  zygomaticus 
Fossa  mandibularis 

Pars  nasalis 
Spina  frontalis 
Margo  nasalis 
Margo  parietalis 
Processus  zygomaticus 
Facies  temporalis 
Linea  temporalis 
Tuber  frontale 

Arcus  superciliaris 

Facies  articularis 
Tuberculum  articulare 
Facies  cerebralis 
Sulcus  a.  temporalis  mediae 

Os  parietale 

Facies  cerebralis 
Facies  parietalis 
Margo  occipitalis 
Margo  squamosus 
Margo  frontalis 
Margo  sagittalis 
Angulus  frontalis 
Angulus  occipitalis 
Angulus  sphenoidalis 
Angulus  mastoideus 
Foramen  parietale 
Tuber  parietale 

Linea  temporalis  inferior 

Linea  temporalis  superior 
Sulcus  sagittalis 
Sulcus  transversus 

Os  frontale 

Squama  frontalis 
Facies  frontalis 
Margo  supraorbitalis 
Pars  orbitalis 
Incisura  ethmoidalis 


Foramen  sive  Incisura  supraorbitalis 

Incisura  sive  Foramen  frontale 

Facies  orbitalis 

(Spina  trochlearis) 

Fovea  trochlearis 

Foramen  ethmoidale  anterius 

Foramen  ethmoidale  posterius 

Fossa  glandulae  lacrimalis 

Facies  cerebralis 

Crista  frontalis 

Sulcus  sagittalis 

Foramen  caecum 

Sinus  frontalis 

Septum  sinuum  frontalium 

Os  ethmoidale 

Lamina  cribrosa 
Crista  galli 
Processus  alaris 
Lamina  perpendicularis 
Labyrinthus  ethmoidalis 

Cellulae  ethmoidales 
Infundibulum  ethmoidale 

Hiatus  semilunaris 
Bulla  ethmoidalis 
Lamina  papyracea 

Foramina  ethmoidalia 
(Concha  nasalis  suprema) 



Larger  tympanic  spine 
Smaller  tympanic  spine 
External  acoustic  pore 
Temporal  squama  ("scale") 
Parietal  margin 
Parietal  notch 
Sphenoidal  margin 
Temporal  surface 
Zygomatic  process 

Mandibular    fossa     (O.    T.     glenoid 
Articular  surface 
Articular  tubercle 
Cerebral  surface 
Groove  for  middle  temporal  artery 

Parietal  bone 

Cerebral  surface 

Parietal  surface 

Occipital  margin 

Squamosal  margin 

Frontal  margin 

Sagittal  margin 

Frontal  angle 

Occipital  angle 

Sphenoidal  angle 

Mastoid  angle 

Parietal  foramen 

Parietal  tuber  (O.  T.  parietal  emi- 

Inferior  temporal  line  (O.  T.  temporal 

Superior  temporal  line 

Sagittal  sulcus 

Transverse  sulcus  (O.  T.  groove  for 
lateral  sinus) 

Frontal  bone 

Frontal  squama  ("scale") 
Frontal  surface 
Supraorbital  margin 
Orbital  part 
Ethmoidal  notch 

Nasal  part 

Frontal  spine    (O.   T.   nasal  spine) 

Nasal  margin 

Parietal  margin 

Zygomatic  process 

Temporal  surface 

Temporal  line 

Frontal  tuber  (O.  T.  frontal  emi- 

Superciliary  arch  (O.  T.  superciliary 

Glabella  ("smooth") 

Supraorbital  foramen  or  notch 

Frontal  notch  or  foramen 

Orbital  surface 

Trochlear  spine 

Trochlear  pit 

Anterior   ethmoidal   foramen 

Posterior  ethmoidal  foramen 

Fossa  of  lacrimal  gland 

Cerebral  surface  (O.  T.  internal  sur- 

Frontal  crest 

Sagittal  sulcus 

Blind  foramen 

Frontal  sinus 

Septum  of  frontal  sinuses 

Ethmoid  bone 

Cribriform  plate 

Cock's  comb 

Alar  process 

Perpendicular  plate 

Ethmoidal  labyrinth  (O.  T,  lateral 

mass  of  ethmoid) 
Ethmoidal  cells 
Ethmoidal  funnel 

Semilunar  hiatus 
Ethmoidal  bulla  ("bubble") 
Papyrus  or  paper  plate  (O.  T.  os 

Ethmoidal  foramina 
Supreme  turbinated  bone 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Concha  nasalis  superior 
Concha  nasalis  media 
Processus  uncinatus 

Concha  nasalis  inferior 

Processus  lacrimalis 
Processus  maxillaris 
Processus  ethmoidahs 

Os  lacrimale 

Crista  lacrimahs  posterior 

Sulcus  lacrimalis 
Hamulus  lacrimalis 

Fossa  sacci  lacrimalis 

Os  nasale 

Foramina  nasalia 
Sulcus  ethmoidalis 

Ala  vomeris 


Ossa  faciei 


Corpus  maxillae 
Facies  anterior 

Facies  nasalis 
Facies  orbitalis 
Facies  infratemporalis 

Sinus  maxillaris 

(Fossa  praenasalis) 
Incisura  nasalis 
Tuber  maxillare 
Foramina  alveolaria 
Canales  alveolares 

Planum  orbitale 
Margo  lacrimalis 
Sulcus  lacrimalis 
Canalis  nasolacrimalis 

Crista  conchalis 
Processus  frontalis 
Crista  lacrimalis  anterior 
Incisura  lacrimalis 
Crista  ethmoidalis 
Processus  zygomaticus 

Processus  palatinus 
Crista  nasalis 
Spina  nasalis  anterior 
Os  incisivum 
Canalis  incisivus 
Sutura  incisiva 
Spinae  palatinae 
Sulci  palatini 
Processus  alveolaris 
Limbus  alveolaris 
Alveoli  dentales 
Septa  interalveolaria 
Juga  alveolaria 
Hiatus  maxillaris 
Foramen  incisivum 

Os  palatinum 

Pars    p  e  r  p  e  n  d  i  c  u  1  ar  is 

Margo  infraorbitalis 
Canalis  infraorbitalis 
Sulcus  infraorbitalis 
Foramen  infraorbitale 
Sutura  infraorbitalis 
Fossa  canina 

Facies  nasalis 
Facies  maxillaris 
Incisura  sphenopalatina 
Sulcus  pterygopalatinus 
Processus  pyramidalis 
Foramen  palatinum  majus 



Superior  turbinated  bone 
Middle  turbinated  bone 
Uncinate  process     (O.     T.     unciform 

Inferior  turbinated  bone 

Lacrimal  process 
Maxillary  process 
Ethmoidal  process 

Lacrimal  bone 

Posterior  lacrimal  crest  (O.  T.  lacri- 
mal crest) 

Lacrimal  sulcus 

Lacrimal  hamulus  (''booklet")  (O.  T. 
hamular  process) 

Fossa  of  lacrimal  sac 

Nasal  bone 

Nasal  foramina 

Ethmoidal  sulcus  (O.  T.  groove  for 
nasal  nerve) 

Vomer,  or  ploughshare  bone 

Wing  of  vomer 

Bones  of  the  face 

Maxilla,  or  upper  jawbone  (0.  T. 
superior  maxillary  bone) 

Body  of  maxilla 

Anterior  surface  (O.  T.  external  or 
facial  surface) 

Nasal  surface 

Orbital  surface 

Infratemporal  surface  (O.  T.  zygo- 
matic surface) 

Maxillary  sinus  (O.  T.  antrum  of 

Infraorbital  margin 

Infraorbital  canal 

Infraorbital  groove 

Infraorbital  foramen 

Infraorbital  suture 

Canine  fossa 

Prenasal  fossa 

Nasal  notch 

Maxillary  tuber 

Alveolar  foramina 

Alveolar  canals  (O.  T.  posterior  dental 

Orbital  plain 

Lacrimal  margin 

Lacrimal  sulcus 

Nasolacrimal  canal  (O.  T.  lacrimal 

Turbinated  crest 

Frontal  process  (O.  T.  nasal  process) 

Anterior  lacrimal  crest 

Lacrimal  notch 

Ethmoidal  crest 

Zygomatic  process  (O.  T.  malar  proc- 

Palatine  process 

Nasal  crest 

Anterior  nasal  spine 

Incisive  hone 

Incisive  canal 

Incisive  suture 

Palatine  spines 

Palatine  grooves 

Alveolar  process 

Alveolar  margin 

Tooth  cavities 

Interalveolar  septa 

Alveolar  yokes 

Maxillary  hiatus 

Incisive  foramen 

Palate  bone 

Perpendicular     part 

vertical    plate) 
Nasal  surface 
Maxillary  surface 
Sphenopalatine  notch 
Pterygopalatine  sulcus 
Pyramidal  process 
Larger  palatine  foramen 

(O.     T. 


Foramina  palatina  minora 
Canales  palatini 
Crista  conchalis 

Crista  ethmoidalis 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Linea  mylohyoidea 

Sulcus  mylohyoideus 
Juga  alveolaria 
Ramus  mandibulae 

Processus  orbitalis 
Processus  sphenoidalis 
Pars    horizontalis 

Facies  nasalis 
Facies  palatina 
Spina  nasalis  posterior 
Crista  nasalis 

Os  zygomaticum 

Facies  malaris 
Facies  temporalis 
Facies  orbitalis 
Processus  temporalis 

Processus  frontosphenoidalis 

(Processus  marginalis) 
Foramen  zygomaticoorbital 

Foramen  zygomaticofaciale 

Foramen  zygomaticotemporale 


Corpus  mandibulae 
Basis  mandibulae 
Protuberantia  mentalis 

Tuberculum  mentale 
Spina  mentalis 
Foramen  mentale 
Linea  obliqua 

Fossa  digastrica 

Angulus  mandibulae 
(Tuberositas  masseterica) 
(Tuberositas  pterygoidea) 
(Crista  buccinatoria) 
Incisura  mandibulae 

Processus  condyloideus 

Capitulum  [proc.  condyl.]  mandibulae 

CoUum  [proc.  condyloidei]  mandibulae 

Fovea   pterygoidea   proc.    condyloidei 

Processus  coronoideus 

Foramen  mandibulare 

Lingula  mandibulae 
Canalis  mandibulae 

Fovea  sublingualis 
(Fovea  submaxillaris) 

Pars  alveolaris 
Limbus  alveolaris 
Alveoli  dentales 
Septa  interalveolaria 

Os  hyoideum 

Corpus  OSS.  hyoidei 
Cornu  minus 
Cornu  ma  jus 




Lamina  externa 


Canales  diploid  [Brescheti] 

Lamina  interna 

Facies  [ossea] 



Smaller  palatine  foramen 

Palatine  canals 

Turbinated  crest    (O.  T.  inferior  tur- 
binated crest) 

Ethntoidal  crest  (O.  T.  superior  turbi 
nated  crest) 

Orbital  process 

Sphenoidal  process 

Horizontal  part  (O.  T.  hori- 
zontal   plate) 

Nasal  surface 

Palatine  surface 

Posterior  nasal  spine 

Nasal  crest 

Zygoma,  or  yoke  bone  (0.  T.  malar 

Malar  surface 

Temporal  surface 

Orbital  surface 

Temporal  process   (O.   T.   zygomatic 

Frontosphenoidal     process      (O.      T. 

frontal  process 
Marginal  process 
Zygomatico-orbital    foramen    (O.    T. 

temporo-malar  canal) 
Zygomaticofacial      foramen      (O.   T. 

malar  foramen) 
Zygomaticotemporal  foramen 

Mandible,  or  lower  jaw  bone  (0. 

T.  inferior  maxillary  bone) 
Body  of  lower  jaw  bone 

Base  of  lower  jaw 
Mental  protuberance   (O.   T.   mental 

Mental  tubercle 

Mental  spine  (O.  T.  genial  tubercle) 
Mental  foramen 
Oblique  line  (O.  T.  external  oblique 

Digastric  fossa 

Mylohyoid  line  (O.  T.  internal  oblique 

Mylohoid  groove 

Alveolar  yokes 

Ramus  of  lower  Jaw  (O.  T.  perpen- 
dicular portion) 

Angle  of  lower  jaw 

Masseteric  tuberosity 

Pterygoid  tuberosity 

Buccinator  crest 

Mandibular  notch  (O.  T.  sigmoid 

Condyloid  process 

Head  of  condyloid  process  of  lower  jaw 

Neck  of  condyloid  process  of  lower  jaw 

Pterygoid  pit  of  condyloid  process 

Coronoid  process 

Mandibular  foramen  (O.  T.  inferior 
dental  foramen) 

Mandibular  tongue 

Mandibular  canal  (O.  T.  inferior 
dental  canal) 

Sublingual  pit  (O.  T.  sublingual  fossa) 

Submaxillary  pit  (O.  T.  submaxillary 

Alveolar  part 

Alveolar  margin 

Tooth  cavities 

Interalveolar  septa 

Hyoid  bone 

Body  of  hyoid  bone 
Lesser  horn 
Greater  horn 


Skull  cap 

Periosteum  of  skull 

Outer  plate 

Cancellous  bone 

Diploic  canals  or  canals  of  Breschet 

Inner  table 

Bony  portion  of  face 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Cranium  cerebrale 

Cranium  viscerale 




Basis  cranii  interna 

Basis  cranii  externa 

Fossa  cranii  anterior 

Fossa  cranii  media 

Fossa  cranii  posterior 

Juga  cerebralia 

Impressiones  digitatae 

Sulci  venosi 

Sulci  arteriosi 

(Foveolae  granulares  [Pacchioni]) 

(Ossa  suturarum) 
Planum  temporale 
Fossa  temporalis 
Arcus  zygomaticus 
Fossa  infratemporalis 
Fossa  pterygopalatina 

Canalis  pterygopalatinus 

Foramen  sphenopalatinum 
Apertura  piriformis 
Cavum  nasi 
Septum  nasi  osseum 
Meatus  nasi  communis 
Meatus  nasi  superior 
Meatus  nasi  medius 
Meatus  nasi  inferior 
Meatus  nasopharyngeus 

Recessus  sphenoethmoidalis 
Foramen  jugulare 
Fissura  sphenopetrosa 
Fissura  petrooccipitalis 
Fissura  sphenooccipitalis 
Foramen  lacerum 

.  Fibrocartilago  basaiis 
Palatum  durum 
(Torus  palatinus) 

Aditus  orbitae 
Margo  supraorbitalis 
Margo  infraorbitalis 
Paries  superior 
Paries  inferior 
Paries  lateralis 
Paries  medialis 
Fissura  orbitalis  superior 

Fissura  orbitalis  inferior 

Suturae  cranii 

Sutura  coronalis 
Sutura  sagittalis 
Sutura  lambdoidea 
Sutura  occipitomastoidea 
Sutura  sphenofrontalis 
Sutura  sphenoorbitalis 
Sutura  sphenoethmoidalis 
Sutura  sphenosquamosa 
Sutura  sphenoparietalis 
Sutura  squamosa 
(Sutura  frontalis) 
Sutura  parietomastoidea 
(Sutura  squamosomastoidea) 
Sutura  nasofrontalis 
Sutura  frontoethmoidalis 
Sutura  frontomaxillaris 
Sutura  frontolacrimalis 
Sutura  zygomaticofrontalis 
Sutura  zygomaticomaxillaris 
Sutura  ethmoideomaxillaris 
Sutura  sphenozygomatica 
(Sutura  sphenomaxillaris) 
Sutura  zygomaticotemporalis 
Sutura  internasalis 
Sutura  nasomaxillaris 



Cerebral  cranium  or  calvaria 

Visceral  cranium  or  face 

Vertex  or  crown  of  head 


Back  of  head 

Internal  base  of  skull 

External  base  of  skull 

Anterior  cranial  fossa 

Middle  cranial  fossa 

Posterior  cranial  fossa 

Cerebral  projections  ("yokes") 

Digitate  impressions 

Grooves  of  the  veins 

Grooves  of  the  arteries 

Granular  foveolae  (O.  T.  Pacchionian 

Sutural  bones  (O.  T.  Wormian  bones) 

Temporal  plain 

Temporal  fossa 

Zygomatic  arch 

Infratemporal  fossa 

Pterygopalatine  fossa  (O.  T.  spheno- 
maxillary fossa) 

Pterygopalatine  canal  (O.  T.  posterior 
palatine  canal) 

Sphenopalatine  foramen 

Piriform  opening  (O.  T.  anterior  nares) 

Nasal  cavity 

Bony  nasal  septum 

Common  meatus  of  nose 

Superior  meatus  of  nose 

Middle  meatus  of  nose 

Inferior  meatus  of  nose 

Nasopharyngeal  meatus 

Choanae  ("  funnels")  (O.  T.  posterior 

Spheno-ethmoidal  recess 

Jugular  foramen 

Sphenopetrosal  fissure 

Petro-occipital  fissure 

Spheno-occipital  fissure 

Lacerated  foramen  (O.  T.  foramen 
lacerum  medium) 

Basal  fibrocartilage 

Hard  palate 

Palatine  torus  or  protuberance 

Orbital  cavity 

Orbital  opening 

Supraorbital  margin 

Infraorbital  margin 

Superior  wall 

Inferior  wall 

Lateral  wall 

Medial  wall 

Superior  orbital  fissure  (O.  T.  sphe- 
noidal fissure  or  foramen  lacerum 

Inferior  orbital  fissure  (O.  T.  spheno- 
maxillary fissure)  • 

Sutures  of  the  skull 

Coronal  suture 
Sagittal  suture 
Lambdoidal  suture 
Occipitomastoid  suture 
Sphenofrontal  suture 
Spheno-orbital  suture 
Spheno-ethmoidal  suture 
Sphenosquamosal  suture 
Sphenoparietal  suture 
Squamosal  suture 
Frontal  suture 
Parietomastoid  suture 
Squamosomastoid  suture 
Nasofrontal  suture 
Fronto-ethmoidal  suture 
Frontomaxillary  suture 
Frontolacrimal  suture 
Zygomaticofrontal  suture 
Zygomaticomaxillary  suture 
Ethmoideomaxillary  suture 
Sphenozygomatic  suture 
Sphenomaxillary  suture 
Zygomaticotemporal  suture 
Internasal  suture 
Nasomaxillary  suture 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Sutura  lacrimomaxillaris 

Tuberositas  supraglenoidalis 

Sutura  lacrimoconchalis 

Sutura  intermaxillaris 

Incisura  scapulae 

Sutura  palatomaxillaris 

Sutura  palatoethmoidalis 

Processus  coracoideus 

Sutura  palatina  mediana 
Sutura  palatina  transversa 


Synchondroses  cranii 

Synchondrosis  sphenooccipitalis 
Synchondrosis  sphenopetrosa 
Synchondrosis  petrooccipitalis 
Synchondrosis  intraoccipitalis  posterior 
Synchondrosis  intraoccipitalis  anterior 
Synchondrosis  inters phenoidalis 
F%nticidus  frontalis  [major] 
Fonticulus  occipitalis  [minor] 
Fonticulus  mastoideus 
Fonticulus  sphenoidalis 

Ossa  extremitatis  superioris 

Cingulum   extremitatis    su- 


Facies  costalis 
Lineae  musculares 
Fossa  subscapularis 
Facies  dorsalis 
Spina  scapulae 
Fossa  supraspinata 
Fossa  infraspinata 

Facies  articularis  acromii 
Margo  vertebralis 
Margo  axillaris 
Margo  superior 
Angulus  inferior 
Angulus  lateralis 
Angulus  medialis 
Cavitas  glenoidalis 
Collum  scapulae 
Tuberositas  infraglenoidalis 

Extremitas  sternalis 
Facies  articularis  sternalis 
Tuberositas  costalis 

Extremitas  acromialis 
Facies  articularis  acromialis 
Tuberositas  coracoidea 

Skeleton    extremitatis    su 
perioris   liberae 


Caput  humeri 
Collum  anatomicum 
Collum  chirurgicum 
Tuberculum  ma  jus 

Tuberculum  minus 

Sulcus  intertubercularis 

Crista  tuberculi  majoris 

Crista  tuberculi  minoris 

Corpus  humeri 

Facies  anterior  medialis 

Facies  anterior  lateralis 

Facies  posterior 
Margo  medialis 
Margo  lateralis 
Tuberositas  deltoidea 
Sulcus  n.  radialis 



Lacrimomaxillary  suture 
Lacrimoconchal  suture 
Intermaxillary  suture 
Palatomaxillary  suture 
Palato-ethmoidal  suture 
Median  palatine  suture 
Transverse  palatine  suture 

Synchondroses  of  the  skull 

Spheno-occipital  synchondrosis 
Sphenopetrosal  synchondrosis 
Petro-occipital  synchondrosis 
Posterior  intraoccipital  synchondrosis 
Anterior  intraoccipital  synchondrosis 
Inter  sphenoidal  synchondrosis 
Larger  jrontal  jontanelle 
Smaller  occipital  jontanelle 
Mastoid  jontanelle 
Sphenoidal  jontanelle 

Bones  of  upper  extremity 

Shoulder    girdle 


Costal  surface 

Muscular  lines 

Subscapular  fossa 

Dorsal  surface 

Spine  of  the  scapula 

Supraspinous  fossa 

Infraspinous  fossa 

Acromion,  or  acromial  process 

Articular  surface  of  acromion 

Vertebral  margin 

Axillary  margin 

Superior  margin 

Inferior  angle 

Lateral  angle  (O.  T.  anterior  angle) 

Medial  angle  (O.  T.  superior  angle) 

Glenoid  cavity 

Neck  of  the  scapula 

Infraglenoidal  tuberosity 

Supraglenoidal  tuberosity  (O.  T.  su- 

praglenoid  tubercle) 
Scapular  notch  (O.  T.  suprascapular 

Coracoid  ("crow's  beak")  process 

Collar  bone  or  clavicle 

Sternal  extremity 

Sternal  articular  surface 

Costal   tuberosity   (O.   T.    impression 

for  rhomboid  ligament) 
Acromial  extremity 
Acromial  articular  surface 
Coracoid  tuberosity  (O.  T-.  impression 

for  conoid  ligament) 

Skeleton    of    free    upper 

Humerus,  or  upper  arm  bone 

Head  of  humerus 

Anatomical  neck 

Surgical  neck 

Larger  tubercle  (O.  T.  greater  tuber- 

Smaller  tubercle  (O.  T.  lesser  tuber- 

Intertubercular  sulcus  (O.  T.  bicipital 

Crest  of  larger  tubercle  (O.  T.  posterior 
bicipital  ridge) 

Crest  of  smaller  tubercle  (O.  T.  an- 
terior bicipital  ridge) 

Body  of  humerus,  or  shaft 

Medial  anterior  surface  (O.  T.  internal 

Lateral  anterior  surface  (O.  T.  external 

Posterior  surface 

Medial  margin  (O.  T.  internal  border) 

Lateral  margin  (O.  T.  external  border) 

Deltoid  tuberosity 

Groove  for  radial  nerve  (O.  T.  muscu- 
lospiral  groove) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Sulcus  n.  ulnaris 
Capitulum  humeri 

Trochlea  humeri 
Epicondylus  medialis 

Epicondylus  lateralis 

Fossa  olecrani 

Fossa  coronoidea 

Fossa  radialis 

(Processus  supracondyloideus) 


Corpus  radii 
Capitulum  radii 
Fovea  capituli  radii 
CoUum  radii 

Circumferentia  articularis 
Tuberositas  radii 

Crista  interossea 

Facies  dorsalis 
Facies  volaris 
Facies  lateralis 
Margo  dorsalis 
Margo  volaris 
Processus  styloideus 
Incisura  ulnaris 
Facies  articularis  carpea 


Corpus  ulnae 

Processus  coronoideus 
Tuberositas  ulnae 
Incisura  semilunaris 

Incisura  radialis 

Crista  interossea 

Facies  dorsalis 

Facies  volaris 
Facies  medialis 
Margo  dorsalis 
Margo  volaris 
Crista  m.  supinatoris 
Capitulum  ulnae 

Circumferentia  articularis 
Processus  styloideus 


O  S.S  a  c  a  r  p  i 

(Os  centrale) 

Os  naviculare  manus 

Tuberculum  oss.  navicularis 
Os  lunatum 
Os  triquetrum 

Os  pisiforme 

Os  multangulum  ma  jus 

Tuberculum  oss.   multang.   majoris 
Os  multangulum  minus 

Os  capitatum 
Os  hamatum 

Hamtilus  oss.  hamati 
Eminentia  carpi  radialis 
Eminentia  carpi  ulnaris 
Sulcus  carpi 


Ossa  metacarpalia  I — V 



Os  metacarpale  III 

Processus  styloideus 

Phalanges  digitorum  manus 

Phalanx  prima 
Phalanx  secunda 



Groove  for  ulnar  nerve 

Capitulum  or  little  head  of  humerus 

(O.  T.  capitellum  or  radial  head) 
Trochlea  ("pulley")  of  humerus 
Medial  epicondyle  (O.  T.  internal  con- 

Lateral    epicondyle    (O.    T.    external 

Olecranon  fossa 
Coronoid  fossa 
Radial  fossa 
Supracondyloid  process 

Radius  ("spoke") 

Body  of  radius,  or  shaft 

Head  of  radius 

Pit  of  head  of  radius 

Neck  of  radius 

Articular  circumference 

Tuberosity  of  radius  (O.  T.  bicipital 

Interosseous  crest  (O.  T.  internal  or 

interosseous  border) 
Dorsal  surface  (O.  T.  posterior  surface) 
Volar  surface  (O.  T.  anterior  surface) 
Lateral  surface  (O.  T.  external  surface) 
Dorsal  margin  (O.  T.  posterior  border) 
Volar  margin  (O.  T.  anterior  border) 
Styloid  process 

Ulnar  notch  (O.  T.  sigmoid  cavity) 
Carpal  articular  surface 

Ulna,  or  elbow  bone 

Body  of  ulna,  or  shaft 

Olecranon,  or  point  of  the  elbow 

Coronoid  process 

Tuberosity  of  the  ulna 

Semilunar  notch  (O.  T.  greater  sig- 
moid cavity) 

Radial  notch  (O.  T.  lesser  sigmoid 

Interosseous  crest  (O.  T.  external  or 
interosseous  border) 

Dorsal  surface   (O.   T.   posterior  sur- 
Volar  surface  (O.  T.  anterior  surface) 
Medial  surface  (O.  T.  internal  surface) 
Dorsal  margin  (O.  T.  posterior  border) 
Volar  margin  (O.  T.  anterior  border) 
Ridge  of  supinator  muscle 
Head  of  ulna 

Articular  circumference 
Styloid  process 


Bones    of    the    wrist 

Central  bone 

Navicular  bone  of  the  hand   (O.  T. 
Tubercle  of  navicular  bone 

Lunate  bone  (O.  T.  semilunar) 

Three-cornered  bone  (O,  T.  cuneiform 

Pisiform  bone 

Large  multangular  bone   (O.  T.  tra- 
Tubercle  of  large  multangular  bone 

Small  multangular  bone  (O.  T.  trape- 

Capitate  bone  (O.  T.  os  magnum) 

Hooked  bone  (O.  T.  unciform) 
Hook  of  OS  hamatum 

Radial  eminence  of  wrist 

Ulnar  eminence  of  wrist 

Carpal  sulcus 


Metacarpal  bones  I — ^V 


Body,  or  shaft 

Third  metacarpal  bone 

Styloid  process 

Phalanges  of  the  fingers 

First  phalanx 
Second  phalanx 


Phalanx  tertia 
Basis  phalangis 
Corpus  phalangis 
Trochlea  phalangis 
Tuberositas  unguicularis 
Ossa  sesamoidea 

Ossa  extremitatis  inferioris 

Cingulum  extremitatis  in- 
Os  coxae 
Foramen  obturatum 
Fossa  acetabuli 
Incisura  acetabuli 
Facies  lunata 
Sulci  paraglenoidales 

Os  ilium 

Corpus  OSS.  ilium 
Ala  OSS.  ilium 
Linea  arcuata 
Crista  iliaca 

Labium  externum 

Linea  intermedia 

Labium  internum 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 
Spina  iliaca  anterior  inferior 
Spina  iliaca  posterior  superior 
Spina  iliaca  posterior  inferior 
Linea  glutaea  anterior 

Linea  glutaea  posterior 

Linea  glutaea  inferior 

Facies  auricularis 
Tuberositas  iliaca 
Fossa  iliaca 

Os  ischii 

Corpus  OSS.  ischii 
Ramus  superior  oss.  ischii 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ramus  inferior  oss.  ischii 

Tuber  ischiadicum 

Spina  ischiadica 

Incisura  ischiadica  major 

Incisura  ischiadica  minor 

Os  pubis 

Corpus  oss.  pubis 

Pecten  oss.  pubis 

Eminentia  iliopectinea 

Tuberculum  pubicum 

Crista  obturatoria 

Sulcus  obturatorius 

Tuberculum  obturatorium  anterius 

(Tuberculum  obturatorium  posterius) 

Ramus  inferior  oss.  pubis 

Ramus  superior  oss.  pubis 

Facies  symphyseos 


Symphysis  ossium  pubis 
Arcus  pubis 
Angulus  pubis 
Pelvis  major 
Pelvis  minor 
Linea  terminalis 

Pars  sacralis 

Pars  iliaca 

Pars  pubica 
Apertura  pelvis  [minoris]  superior 

Apertura  pelvis  [minoris]  inferior 

Axis  pelvis 



Third  phalanx 

Base  of  phalanx 

Body  of  phalanx,  or  shaft 

Pulley  of  phalanx 

Ungual  tuberosity 

Sesamoid  bones 

Bones  of  the  lower  extremity 

Pelvic    girdle 

Hip  bone  (0.  T.  os  innominatum) 

Obturator  ("closed")  foramen 
Acetabulum  ("cup") 
Fossa  of  the  acetabulum 
Acetabular  notch 
Lunate  surface 
Paraglenoid  grooves 

Ilium,  or  flank  bone 

Body  of  ilium 
Wing  of  ilium 
Curved  lines 
Iliac  crest 

External  lip 

Intermediate  line 

Internal  Hp 
Superior  anterior  iliac  spine 
Inferior  anterior  iliac  spine 
Superior  posterior  iliac  spine 
Inferior  posterior  iliac  spine 
Anterior  gluteal  line   (O.   T.   middle 

curved  line) 
Posterior  gluteal  line  (O.  T.  superior 

curved  line) 
Inferior  gluteal   line    (O.    T.    inferior 

curved  line) 
Auricular  surface 
Iliac  tuberosity 
Iliac  fossa 

Ischium,  or  bone  of  the  hip 

Body  of  ischium 
Superior  ramus  of  ischium 

Inferior  ramus  of  ischium  (O.  T. 
ascending  ramus) 

Sciatic  tuber  (O.  T.  tuberosity  of  the 

Sciatic  spine  (O.  T.  spine  of  the  is- 

Greater  sciatic  notch  (O.  T.  great 
sacro-sciatic  notch) 

Lesser  sciatic  notch  (O.  T.  lesser 
sacro-sciatic  notch) 

Pubic  bone 

Body  of  pubic  bone 

Pecten  ("comb")  of  pubic  bone 

Iliopectineal  eminence 

Pubic  tubercle  (O.  T.  spine  of  os  pubis) 

Obturator  crest 

Obturator  sulcus 

Anterior  obturator  tubercle 

Posterior  obturator  tubercle 

Inferior  ramus  of  pubic  bone  (O.  T. 

descending  ramus) 
Superior  ramus  of  pubic  bone  (O.  T. 

ascending  ramus) 
Symphyseal  surface  (O.  T.  symphysis 


Pelvis  ("basin") 

Symphysis  of  pubic  bones 

Pubic  arch 

Angle  of  pubis 

Large  pelvis  (O.  T.  false  pelvis) 

Small  pelvis  (O.  T.  true  pelvis) 

Terminal  line 

Sacral  part 

Iliac  part 

Pubic  part 
Upper  opening  of  lesser  pelvis  (O.  T. 

pelvic  inlet) 
Lower  opening  of  lesser  pelvis  (O.  T. 

pelvic  outlet) 
Axis  of  pelvis 
Conjugate  diameter 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Diameter  transversa 
Diameter  obliqua 
Inclinatio  pelvis 

Skeleton     extremitatis 
f er  ioris     liberae 


Caput  femoris 
Fovea  capitis  femoris 
CoUum  femoris 
Corpus  femoris 
Trochanter  major 
Fossa  trochanterica 
Trochanter  minor 
(Trochanter  tertius) 
Linea  intertrochanterica 
Crista  intertrochanterica 

Linea  aspera 

Labium  laterale 

Labium  mediale 
Linea  pectinea 
Tuberositas  glutaea 
Fossa  intercondyloidea 
Linea  intercondyloidea 
Planum  popliteum 
Condylus  medialis 
Condylus  lateralis 
Facies  patellaris 
Epicondylus  lateralis 

Epicondylus  medialis 


Facies  articularis  superior 
Corpus  tibiae 
Condylus  medialis 

Condylus  lateralis 

Fossa  intercondyloidea  anterior 
Fossa  intercondyloidea  posterior 


Eminentia  intercondyloidea 

Tuberculum  intercondyloideum  me- 

Tuberculum  intercondyloideum  late- 

Margo  infraglenoidalis 

Tuberositas  tibiae 

Facies  medialis 

Facies  posterior 

Facies  lateralis 

Margo  medialis 

Crista  anterior 

Crista  interossea 

Linea  poplitea 

Malleolus  medialis 

Incisura  fibularis 
Sulcus  malleolaris 
Facies  articularis  inferior 
Facies  articularis  malleolaris 


Corpus  fibulae 
Crista  interossea 
Crista  anterior 
Crista  lateralis 
Crista  medialis 
Facies  medialis 
Facies  lateralis 
Facies  posterior 
Capitulum  fibulae 
Facies  articularis  capituli 
Apex  capituli  fibulae 
Malleolus  lateralis 

Facies  articularis  malleoli 


Basis  patellae 
Apex  patellae 
Facies  articularis 



Transverse  diameter 
Oblique  diameter 
Pelvic  incline 

Skeleton      of      free      lower 

Thigh  bone 

Head  of  femur 

Pit  of  the  head  of  femur 

Neck  of  femur 

Body,  or  shaft,  of  femur 

Great  trochanter 

Trochanteric  fossa  (O.  T.  digital  fossa) 

Lesser  trochanter 

Third  trochanter 

Intertrochanteric  line  (O.  T.  spiral  line) 

Intertrochanteric  crest  (O.  T.  inter- 
trochanteric line) 

Rough  line 

Lateral  lip 
Medial  lip 

Pectineal  line 

Gluteal  tuberosity 

Intercondyloid  fossa 

Intercondyloid  line 

Popliteal  plain  (O.  T.  popliteal  space) 

Medial  condyle  (O.  T.  inner  condyle) 

Lateral  condyle  (O.  T.  outer  condyle) 

Patellar  surface 

Lateral  epicondyle  (O.  T.  outer  tube- 

Medial  epicondyle  (O.  T.  inner  tuber- 

Shin  bone 

Superior  articular  surface 

Body  or  shaft  of  tibia 

Medial  condyle  (O.  T.  internal  tuber- 

Lateral  condyle  (O.  T.  external  tuber- 

Anterior  intercondyloid  fossa 

Posterior  intercondyloid  fossa 

Intercondyloid  eminence  (O.  T.  spinous 

Medial  intercondyloid  tubercle 

Lateral  intercondyloid  tubercle 

Infraglenoidal  margin 
Tuberosity  of  the  tibia  (O.  T.  tubercle) 
Medial  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Lateral  surface 
Medial  margin 
Anterior  crest 
Interosseous  crest 
PopKteal  Hne 

Medial  malleolus  (O.  T.  internal  mal- 
Fibular  notch 
Malleolar  sulcus 
Inferior  articular  surface 
Malleolar  articular  surface 

Calf  bone 

Body  or  shaft  of  fibula 
Interosseous  crest 
Anterior  crest 
Lateral  crest 
Medial  crest 
Medial  surface 
Lateral  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Head  of  fibula 
Articular  surface  of  head 
Apex  of  head  of  fibula 
Lateral  malleolus  (O.  T.  e^xternal  mal- 
Articular  surface  of  malleolus 


Base  of  patella 
Apex  of  patella 
Articular  surface 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Ossa   tarsi 


Caput  tali 

Corpus  tali 

Collum  tali 

Trochlea  tali 
Facies  superior 
Facies  malleolaris  medialis 
Facies  malleolaris  lateralis 

Sulcus  tali 

Processus  lateralis  tali 

Facies  articularis  calcanea  posterior 

Facies  articularis  calcanea  media 

Sulcus  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

Facies  articularis  navicularis 
Facies  articularis  calcanea  anterior 
Processus  posterior  tali 
(Os  trigonum) 


Corpus  calcanei ' 
Tuber  calcanei 

Processus    medialis    tuberis    cal- 
Processus    lateralis    tuberis    cal- 
Sustentaculum  tali 
Sulcus  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

Sulcus  calcanei 

Sinus  tarsi 

Facies  articularis  anterior 

Facies  articularis  media 
Facies  articularis  posterior 
Sulcus  m.  peronaei 
(Processus  trochlearis) 
Facies  articularis  cuboidea 

Os  naviculare  pedis 

Tuberositas  oss.  navicularis 

Os  cuneiforme  primum 

Os  cuneiforme  secundum 

Os  cuneiforme  tertitun 

Os  cuboideum 

Sulcus  m.  peronaei 
Tuberositas  oss.  cuboidei 

Ossa  metatarsalia  I — V 



Tuberositas  oss.  metatarsalis  I 
Tuberositas  oss.  metatarsalis  V 

Phalanges  digitorum  pedis 

Phalanx  prima 
Phalanx  secunda 
Phalanx  tertia 

Tuberositas  unguicularis 
Basis  phalangis 
Corpus  phalangis 
Trochlea  phalangis 

Ossa  sesamoidea 



Root  of  the  foot 


Ankle  bone  (0.  T.  astragalus) 

Head  of  ankle  bone 
Body  of  ankle  bone 
Neck  of  ankle  bone 
Trochlea  ("  pulley")  of  ankle  bone 

Superior  surface 

Medial  malleolar  surface 

Lateral  malleolar  surface 
Sulcus  of  ankle  bone 
Lateral  process  of  ankle  bone 
Posterior  calcanean  articular  surface 
Middle  calcanean  articular  surface 
Groove  for  the  long  flexor  muscle  of 

the  great  toe 
Navicular  articular  surface 
Anterior  calcanean  articular  surface 
Posterior  process  of  ankle  bone 
Triangular  bone 

Heel  bone  (O.  T.  os  calcis) 

Body  of  heel  bone 
Calcanean  tuber 

Medial  process  of  calcanean  tuber 

Lateral  process  of  calcanean  tuber 

Support  of  ankle  bone 

Groove  for  the  long  flexor  muscle  of 

great  toe 
Calcanean  sulcus 
Tarsal  sinus 
Anterior  articular  surface 

Middle  articular  surface 
Posterior  articular  surface 
Groove  for  peroneal  muscle 
Trochlear  process 
Cuboid  articular  surface 

Scaphoid  bone  of  foot 

Tuberosity  of  scaphoid  bone 

First  Cuneiform,  or  Wedge  Bone 

Second  Cuneiform,  or  Wedge  Bone 

Third  Cuneiform,  or  Wedge  Bone 

Cuboid  bone 

Groove  for  peroneal  muscle 
Tuberosity  of  cuboid  bone 

Metatarsus,  or  "after-root"  of  foot 

Metatarsal  bones  I — V 



Tuberosity  of  first  metatarsal  bone 
Tuberosity  of  fifth  metatarsal  bone 

Phalanges  of  toes 

First  phalanx 

Second  phalanx 

Third  phalanx 
Ungual  tuberosity 

Base  of  phalanx 

Body  of  phalanx 

Trochlea  ("pulley  or  block")  of  pha- 

Sesamoid  bones 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Junctura  ossium 


Sutura  serrata 
Sutura  squamosa 





Articulatio  simplex 

Articulatio  composita 


Articulatio  sphaeroidea 



Articulatio  cochlearis 

Articulatio  ellipsoidea 

Articulatio  trochoidea 

Articulatio  sellaris 

Cartilago  articularis 
Cavum  articulare 
Discus  articularis 

Labrum  glenoidale 
Meniscus  articularis 
Capsula  articularis 
Stratum  fibrosum 
Stratum  synoviale 
Plica  synovialis 
Villi  synoviales 

Ligamenta  columnae  vertebralis 
et  cranii 

Fibrocartilagines  intervertebrales 
Annulus  fibrosus 
Nucleus  pulposus 
Ligg.  flava 

Capsulae  articulares 

Ligg.  intertransversaria 

Ligg.  interspinaUa 

Lig.  supraspinal 

Lig.  nuchae 

Lig.  longitudinale  anterius 

Lig.  longitudinale  posterius 

Symphysis  sacrococcygea 

Lig.  sacrococcygeum  posterius  super- 

Lig.    sacrococcygeum    posterius    pro- 

Lig.  sacrococcygeum  anterius 
Lig.  sacrococcygeum  laterale 
Lig.  pterygospinosum 
Lig.  stylohyoideum 

Articulatio  atlantoocci pi  talis 

Capsulae  articulares 

Membrana   atlantooccipitalis   anterior 

Membrana  atlantooccipitalis  posterior 

Articulatio  atlantoepistrophica 

Capsulae  articulares 

Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 


Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 

Joining  of  bones 
Immovable  articulation 

Suture  or  seam 
Serrated  suture 
Scaly  suture 
Apposition  suture 

Socket  articulation 

Cartilaginous  articulation 

Bony  coalescence  or  junction 
Movable  articulation 


Simple  joint 

Compound  joint 

Gliding  joint 

Spherical  joint 

Ball-and-socket  joint 


Spiral  joint 

Elliptical  joint 

Trochoid  or  pivot  joint 

Saddle  joint 

Mixed  articulation 
Ligamentous  union 
Articular  cartilage 
Joint  cavity 
Articular  disk  (O.  T.  interarticular 

Glenoid  lip 
Articular  crescent 

Fibrous  layer 

Synovial  layer 
Synovial  fold 
Synovial  tufts 

Ligaments    of    the    spine    and 

Intervertebral  fibrocartilages 

Fibrous  ring 

Pulp-like  nucleus 

Yellow  ligaments  (O.  T.  ligg.  sub- 


Intertransverse  ligaments 

Interspinous  ligaments 

Supraspinous  ligament 

Ligament  of  the  nape 

Anterior  longitudinal  ligament  (O.  T. 
anterior  common  ligament) 

Posterior  longitudinal  ligament  (O.  T. 
posterior  common  ligament) 

Symphysis  of  sacrum  and  coccyx 

Superficial  posterior  sacrococcygeal 

Deep  posterior  sacrococcygeal  liga- 

Anterior  sacrococcygeal  ligament 

Lateral  sacrococcygeal  ligament 

Pterygospinous  ligament 

Stylohyoid  ligament 

Joint  between  atlas  and  occipital 


Anterior  atlanto-occipital  membrane 

Posterior   atlanto-occipital    membrane 

Joint    between    atlas    and    epis= 
tropheus  or  axis 



Ligg.  alaria 

Lig.  apicis  dentis 

Lig.  transversum  atlantis 
Lig.  cruciatum  atlantis 
Membrana  tectoria 

Articulationes  costovertebrales 
Articulationes  capitulorum 

Capsulae  articulares 

Lig.  capituli  costae  radiatum 

Lig.  capituli  costae  interarticulare 

Articulationes      costotransversa- 

Capsulae  articulares 

Lig.  tuberculi  costae 

Lig.  colli  costae 

Lig.  costotransversarium  anterius 

Lig.  costotransversarium  posterius 

Lig.  lumbocostale 

Foramen  costotransversarium 

Articulationes    sternocostales 

Capsulae  articulares 

Lig.  sternocostale  interarticulare 

Ligg.  sternocostalia  radiata 

Membrana  sterni 
Ligg.  costoxiphoidea 

Ligg.   intercostalia 

Ligg.  intercostalia  externa 
Ligg.  intercostalia  interna 

Articulationes  interchondrales 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Articulatio  mandibularis 

Capsula  articularis 

Discus  articularis 
Lig.  temporomandibulare 
Lig.  sphenomandibulare 
Lig.  stylomandibulare 

Ligg.     cinguli     extremitatis    su= 

Lig.  coracoacromiale 

Lig.  transversum  scapulae  superius 

Lig.  transversum  scapulae  inferius 

Articulatio  acromioclavicularis 

Capsula  articularis 
Lig.  acromioclaviculare 
(Discus  articularis) 
Lig.  coracoclaviculare 

Lig.  trapezoideum 

Lig.  conoideum 

Articulatio    sternoclavicularis 

Capsula  articularis 
Discus  articularis 
Lig.  sternoclaviculare 
Lig.  costoclaviculare 

Lig.  interclaviculare 

Articulatio  humeri 

Capsula  articularis 
Labrum  glenoidale 
Lig.  coracohumerale 

Articulatio  cubiti 

Articulatio  humeroulnaris 
Articulatio  humeroradialis 

Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 


Alar  ligaments  (O.  T.  odontoid  or 
check  ligaments) 

Ligament  of  apex  of  tooth  (O.  T.  sus- 
pensory ligament) 

Transverse  ligament  of  atlas 

Cruciform  ligament  of  atlas 

Tectorial  ("roof")  membrane  (O.  T. 
posterior  occipito-axial  ligament) 

Joints  between  ribs  and  vertebrae 

Capitular  joints,  or  articulations 
between  the  heads  of  the  ribs 
and  the  vertebrae 


Radiate  ligament  of  head  of  rib  (O.  T. 

anterior    costovertebral    or    stellate 

Interarticular  ligament  of  head  of  rib 

Costotransverse  joints 

Ligament  of  tubercle  of  rib 
Ligament  of  neck  of  rib 
Anterior  costotransverse  ligament 
Posterior  costotransverse  ligament 
Lumbocostal  ligament 
Costotransverse  foramen 

Sternocostal  joints 


Interarticular  sternocostal  ligament  (O. 
T.  interarticular  chondrosternal  liga- 

Radiate  sternocostal  ligaments  (O.  T. 
anterior  and  posterior  chondrosternal 

Membrane  of  sternum 

Costoxiphoid  ligaments  (O.  T.  chon- 
droxiphoid  ligaments) 

Intercostal  ligaments 

External  intercostal  ligaments 
Internal  intercostal  ligaments 

Interchondral  joints 


Joint-capsule  (O.  T.  capsular  liga- 

Joint-disk  (O.  T.  interarticular  fibro- 

Temporomandibular  ligament  (O.  T. 
external  lateral  ligament) 

Sphenomandibular  ligament  (O.  T.  in- 
ternal lateral  ligament) 

Stylomandibular  ligament  (O.  T.  stylo- 
maxillary  ligament) 

Ligaments  of  the  girdle  of  upper 

Coraco-acromial  ligament 

Superior  transverse  ligament  of  scapula 

Inferior  transverse  ligament  of  scapula 

Acromioclavicular  joint 


Acromioclavicular  ligament 
Intercalated  disk  of  fibrocartilage 
Coracoclavicular  ligament 

Trapezoid  ligament 

Conoid  ligament 

Sternoclavicular  joint 

Articular  disk 
Sternoclavicular  ligament 
Costoclavicular  Hgament  (O.  T.  rhom- 
boid ligament) 
Interclavicular  ligament 



Glenoid  lip  (O.  T.  glenoid  ligament) 
Coracohumeral  ligament  (O.  T.  acces- 
sory ligament) 


Humero-ulnar  articulation 
Humeroradial  articulation 

34  Anatomical 

Articulatio  radioulnaris  proximalis 

Capsula  articularis 
Lig.  coUaterale  ulnare 

Lig.  coUaterale  radiale 

Lig.  annulare  radii 

Recessus  sacciformis 
Membrana  interossea  antibrachii 
Chorda  obliqua 

Articulatio  radioulnaris  distalis 

Capsula  articularis 
Discus  articularis 

Recessus  sacciformis 

Articulatio  manus 

Articulatio  radiocarpea 

Articulatio  intercarpea 

Capsula  articularis 

Lig.  radiocarpeum  dorsale 

Lig.  radiocarpeum  volare 

Lig.  carpi  radiatum 

Lig.  coUaterale  carpi  ulnare 

Lig.  coUaterale  carpi  radiale 

Ligg.  intercarpea  dorsalia 
Ligg.  intercarpea  volaria 

Ligg.  intercarpea  interossea 

Articulatio  ossis  pisiformis 

Capsula  articularis 

Lig.  pisohamatum 

Lig.  pisometacarpeum 

Canalis  carpi 

Articulationes  carpometacarpeae 

Capsulae  articulares 

Ligg.  carpometacarpea  dorsalia 

Ligg.  carpometacarpea  volaria 

Articulatio  carpometacarpea  pol= 

Capsula  articularis 

Articulationes  intermetacarpeae 

Capsulae  articulares 

Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metacarp.]  dorsalia 

Lig.  basium  [oss.  metacarp.]  volaria 

Lig.  basium  [oss.  metacarp.]  interossea 

Spatia  interossea  metacarpi 

Articulationes    metacarpopha= 

Capsulae  articulares 
Ligg.  collateralia 
Ligg.  accessoria  volaria 

Ligg.  capitulorum  [oss.  metacarpalium] 

Articulationes  digitorum  manus 

Capsulae  articulares 
Ligg.  collateralia 

Ligg.    cinguli   extremitatis   infe« 

Membrana  obturatoria 
Canalis  obturatorius 
Lig.  iliolumbale 

Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 


Proximal  radio-ulnar  articulation  (O. 
T.  superior  radio-ulnar) 


Ulnar  collateral  ligament  (O.  T.  in- 
ternal lateral  ligament) 

Radial  collateral  ligament  (O.  T.  ex- 
ternal lateral  ligament) 

Annular  ligament  of  radius  (O.  T. 

Sacciform  recess 

Interosseous  membrane  of  forearm 

Oblique  cord  (O.  T.  oblique,  or  round 

Distal  radio=ulnar  articulation 
(O.  T.  inferior  radio=ulnar) 


Articular  disk  (O.  T.  triangular  fibro- 

Sacciform  recess 

Joint  of  the  hand 

Radiocarpal  articulation  (O.  T.  wrist- 

Intercarpal  articulation  (O.  T.  carpal 


Dorsal  radiocarpal  ligament  (O.  T. 
posterior  ligament) 

Volar  radiocarpal  ligament  (O.  T.  an- 
terior ligament) 

Radiate  ligament  of  carpus 

Ulnar  collateral  ligament  of  carpus 
(O.  T.  internal  lateral  ligament) 

Radial  collateral  ligament  of  carpus 
(O.  T.  external  lateral  ligament) 

Dorsal  intercarpal  ligaments 

Volar  intercarpal  ligaments  (O.  T. 
palmar  intercarpal) 

Interosseous  intercarpal  ligaments 

Joint    of   the    pisiform    bone 


Ligament  between  pisiform  and  hook- 
shaped  bone 

Ligament  between  pisiform  and  meta- 
carpal bones 

Carpal  canal 

Carpometacarpal  joints 


Dorsal  carpometacarpal  ligaments 

Volar  carpometacarpal  ligaments 

Carpometacarpal    joint    of 



Intermetacarpal  joints 


Dorsal  ligaments  of  basal  extremities 
of  metacarpal  bones 

Volar  ligament  of  basal  extremities  of 
metacarpal  bones 

Interosseous  ligament  of  basal  ex- 
tremities of  metacarpal  bones 

Interosseous  space  of  metacarpus 

Metacarpophalangeal  joints 


Collateral  ligaments 

Volar    accessory    ligaments     (O.     T. 

palmar  ligaments) 
Transverse  ligaments  of  the  heads  of 

the  metacarpal  bones 

Joints  of  the  fingers 


Collateral  ligaments  (O.  T.  lateral 

Ligaments  of  the  girdle  of  lower 
extremity  (O.  T.  pelvic  girdle) 

Obturator  membrane 
Obturator  canal 
Iliolumbar  ligament 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Lig.  sacrotuberosum 

Processus  falciformis 

Lig.  sacrospinosum 

Foramen  ischiadicum  majus 
Foramen  ischiadicum  minus 

Articulatio  sacroiliaca 

Ligg.  sacroiliaca  anteriora 
Ligg.  sacroiliaca  interossea 
Lig.  sacroiliacum  posterius  breve 
Lig.  sacroiliacum  posterius  longum 

Symphysis   ossium   pubis 

Lig.  pubicum  superius 

Lig.  arcuatum  pubis 

Lamina  fibrocartilaginea  interpubica 

Articulatio  coxae 

Capsula  articularis 
Labrum  glenoidale 
Lig.  transversum  acetabuli 
Lig.  teres  femoris 
Zona  orbicularis 

Lig.  iliofemorale 

Lig.  ischiocapsulare 

Lig.  pubocapsulare 

Articulatio  genu 

Capsula  articularis 
Meniscus  lateralis 

Meniscus  medialis 

Lig.  transversum  genu 
Ligg.  cruciata  genu 

Lig.  cruciatum  anterius 
Lig.  cruciatum  posterius 
Plica  synovialis  patellaris 

Plicae  alares 

Lig.  coUaterale  fibulare 

Lig.  coUaterale  tibiale 

Lig.  popliteum  obliquum 

Lig.  popliteum  arcuatum 
Retinaculum  lig.  arcuati 
Lig.  patellae 

Retinaculum  patellae  mediale 
Retinaculum  patellae  laterale 

Articulatio  tibiofibularis 

Capsula  articularis  * 

Ligg.  capituli  fibulae 

Membrana  interossea  cruris 

Syndesmosis  tibiofibularis 

Lig.  malleoli  lateralis  anterius 
Lig.  malleoli  lateralis  posterius 

Articulationes  pedis 
Articulatio  talocruralis 

Capsula  articularis 
Lig.  deltoideum 

Lig.  tibionaviculare 
Lig.  calcaneotibiale 
Lig.  talotibiale  anterius 
Lig.  talotibiale  posterius 
Lig.  talofibulare  anterius 

Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 


Sacrotuberous  ligament  (O.  T.  poste- 
rior or  great  sacrosciatic  ligament) 

Falciform  process  (O.  T.  falciform 

Sacrospinous  ligament  (O.  T.  anterior 
or  small  sacrosciatic  ligament) 

Greater  sciatic  foramen 

Lesser  sciatic  foramen 

Sacro=iliac  joint 

Anterior  sacro-iliac  ligaments 
Interosseous  sacro-iliac  ligaments 
Short  posterior  sacro-iliac  ligament 
Long  posterior  sacro-iliac  ligament 

Symphysis  of  pubic  bones 

Superior  pubic  ligament 
Arcuate  ligament  of  pubis 
Interpubic  fibrocartilaginous  lamina 

Hip= joint 


Glenoid  lip  (O.  T.  cotyloid  ligament) 
Transverse  ligament  of  acetabulum 
Round  ligament  of  the  femur 
Orbicular  zone  (O.  T.  zonular  band  or 

ring  ligament) 
Iliofemoral  ligament  (O.  T.  Y-shaped 

ligament  of  Bigelow) 
Ischiocapsular  ligament  (O.  T.  ischio- 

capsular  band) 
Pubocapsular  ligament   (Q.  T.  pubo- 
capsular  band,  or  pubofemoral  liga- 

Knee= joint 


Lateral  meniscus  (O.  T.  external 
semilunar  fibrocartilage) 

Medial  meniscus  (O.  T.  internal  semi- 
lunar fibrocartilage) 

Transverse  ligament  of  the  knee 

Crucial  ligaments  of  the  knee 

Anterior  crucial  ligament 
Posterior  crucial  ligament 
Patellar  synovial  fold  (O.  T.  ligamen- 

tum  mucosum) 
Alar  folds  (O.  T.  Hgamentum  alaria) 
Fibular    collateral    ligament    (O.    T. 

long  external  lateral  ligament) 
Tibial  collateral  ligament   (O.  T.  in- 
ternal lateral  ligament) 
Oblique    popliteal    ligament    (O.    T. 

posterior  ligament) 
Arcuate  popliteal  ligament 
Retaining  band  of  arcuate  ligament 
Ligament  of  the  patella 
Medial  retaining  band  of  patella 
Lateral  retaining  band  of  patella 

Tibiofibular  joint  (O.  T.  superior 
tibiofibular  articulation) 


Ligaments  of  the  head  of  the  fibula 
(O.  T.  anterior  and  posterior  supe- 
rior tibiofibular  ligaments) 

Interosseous  membrane  of  leg  (O.  T. 
middle  tibiofibular  ligament) 

Tibiofibular  syndesmosis   (O.   T. 
inferior  tibiofibular  articulation) 

Anterior  ligament  of  lateral  malleolus 
Posterior  ligament  of  lateral  malleolus 

Joints  of  the  foot 


Deltoid  ligament  (O.  T.  internal  lat- 
eral  ligament   and   anterior   and 
posterior  tibiotarsal  ligaments) 
Tibionavicular  ligament 
Calcaneotibial  ligament 
Anterior  talotibial  ligament 
Posterior  talotibial  ligament 

Anterior  talofibular  ligament  (O.  T. 
anterior  fasciculus  of  external  lateral 

36  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Lig.  talofibulare  posterius  Pars  calcaneonavicularis 

Lig.  calcaneofibulare 

Articulatiohes  intertarseae 



Articulatio  talocalcanea 

Capsula  articularis 

I.ig.  talocalcaneum  laterale 

Pars  calcaneocuboidea 

Lig.  calcaneonaviculare  dorsale 
Ligg.  navicularicuneiformia  dorsalia 

Ligg.  tarsi  plantaria 

Lig.  plantare  longum 

Ligg.  tarsi  profunda 

Lig.  calcaneocuboideum  plantare 
Lig.  calcaneonaviculare  plantare 

Lig.  talocalcaneum  mediale 

Lig.  talocalcaneum  anterius 
Lig.  talocalcaneum  posterius 

Articulatio    tarsi    transversa 

Articulatio  talonavicularis 

Capsula  articularis 

Articulatio    calcaneocuboidea 

Capsula  articularis 

Articulatio    cuneonavicularis 

Ligg.  tarsi  interossea 

Lig.  talocalcaneum  interosseum 
Lig.  cuneocuboideum  interosseum 
Ligg.  intercuneiformia  interossea 

Ligg.  tarsi  dorsalia 

Lig.  talonaviculare  [dorsale] 

Lig.  cuneocuboideum  dorsale 
Lig.  cuboideonaviculare  dorsale 
Lig.  bifurcatum 

Fibrocartilago  navicularis 

Ligg.     navicularicuneiformia     plan- 

Lig.  cuboideonaviculare  plantare 
Ligg.  intercuneiformia  plantaria 
Lig.  cuneocuboideum  plantare 

Articulationes  tarsometatarseae 

Capsulae  articulares 
Ligg.  tarsometatarsea  dorsalia 
Ligg.  tarsometatarsea  plantaria 
Ligg.  cuneometatarsea  interossea 

Articulationes  intermetatarseae 

Capsulae  articulares 

Ligg.  basiiim  [oss.  metatars.]  interossea 

Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metatars.]  dorsalia 

Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metatars.]  plantaria 

Spatia  interossea  metatarsi 

Articulationes   metatarsophalan= 

Capsulae  articulares 
Ligg.  collateralia 

Syndesmology,  or  Joint  Articulation 


Posterior  talofibular  ligament  (O.  T. 
posterior  fasciculus  of  external  lat- 
eral ligament) 

Calcaneofibular  ligament  (O.  T.  mid- 
dle fasciculus  of  external  lateral 

Intertarsal  joints 
Talocalcaneonavicular  joint 

Talocalcanean  joint 


Lateral  talocalcanean  ligament  (O.  T. 
external  calcaneo-astragaloid  liga- 

Medial  talocalcanean  ligament  (O.  T. 
internal  calcaneo-astragaloid  liga- 

Anterior  talocalcanean  ligament 

Posterior  talocalcanean  ligament 

Chopart's  transverse  articulation 
of  the  tarsus 

Talonavicular  joint 


Calcaneocuboid  joint 


Cuneonavicular  joint 

Interosseous  ligaments  of  tarsus 

Interosseous  talocalcanean  ligament 
Interosseous  cuneocuboid  ligament 
Interosseous  intercuneiform   ligaments 

Dorsal  ligaments  of  tarsus 

Dorsal  talonavicular  ligament  (O.  T. 
superior  astragalonavicular  liga- 

Dorsal  cuneocuboid  ligament 

Dorsal  cuboideonavicular  ligament 

Bifurcate  ligament 

Calcaneonavicular  part    (O.  T.  su- 
perior or  external  calcaneonavicu- 
lar ligament) 
Calcaneocuboidal  part    (O.   T.    in- 
ternal calcaneocuboid  ligament) 
Dorsal  calcaneonavicular  ligament 
Dorsal  navicular  cuneiform  ligaments 

Plantar  ligaments  of  tarsus 

Long   plantar   ligament    (O.    T.    long 

calcaneocuboid  ligament) 
Deep  ligaments  of  tarsus 

Plantar  calcaneocuboid  ligament 
Plantar  calcaneonavicular  ligament 
(O.  T.  inferior  calcaneonavicular 
Navicular  fibrocartilage 
Plantar    navicular    cuneiform    liga- 
Plantar  cuboideonavicular  ligament 
Plantar  intercuneiform  ligaments 
Plantar  cuneocuboid  ligament 

Tarsometatarsal  joints 


Dorsal  tarsometatarsal  ligaments 
Plantar  tarsometatarsal  ligaments 
Interosseous      cuneometatarsal      liga- 

Intermetatarsal  joints 


Interosseous  ligaments  of  the  bases  of 

the  metatarsal  bones 
Dorsal  ligaments  of  the  bases  of  the 

metatarsal  bones 
Plantar  ligaments  of  the  bases  of  the 

metatarsal  bones 
Interosseous  spaces  of  metatarsus 

Metatarsophalangeal  joints 

Collateral  ligaments 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ligg.  accessoria  plantaria 
Ligg.     capitulorum     [oss. 

Articulationes  digitorum  pedis 

metatars.]      Capsulae  articulares 
Ligg.  collateralia 













Fascia  superficialis 
Inscriptio  tendinea 
Arcus  tendineus 
Ligamentum  vaginale 
Vagina  fibrosa  tendinis 
Vagina  mucosa  tendinis 
Trochlea  muscularis 
Bursa  mucosa 

Musculi  dorsi 

M.  trapezius 
(M.  transversus  nuchae) 
M.  latissimus   dorsi 
M.  rhomboideus  major 
M.  rhomboideus  minor 
M.  levator  scapulae 

M.  serratus  posterior  inferior 
M.  serratus  posterior  superior 
M.  splenius  cervicis 

M.  splenius  capitis 
M.  sacrospinalis 

M.  iliocostalis 

M.  iliocostalis  lumborum 

M.  iliocostalis  dorsi 

M.  iliocostalis  cervicis 

M.  longissimus 

M.  longissimus   dorsi 
M.  longissimus  cervicis 

M.  longissimus  capitis 

M.  spinalis 

M.  spinalis  dorsi 
M.  spinalis  cervicis 

M.  spinahs  capitis 
M.  semispinalis 

M.  semispinalis  dorsi 
M.  semispinalis  cervicis 

M.  semispinalis  capitis 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Plantar  accessory  ligaments 
Transverse  ligaments  of  the  heads  of 
the  metatarsal  bones 

Joints  of  the  toes 

Collateral  ligaments 

Myology,  or  Musculature 



Fusiform  muscle 
Unipennate  muscle 
Bipennate  muscle 
Sphincter  muscle 
Orbicular  muscle 
Joint  muscle 
Skeletal  muscle 
Skin  muscle 

Tendinous  expansion 
Perimysium,  or  muscle  sheath 
Fascia  ("band  or  swathe"),  or  fibrous 
Superficial  fascia 
Tendinous  inscription 
Tendinous  arch 
Sheath  ligament 
Fibrous  sheath  of  tendon 
Mucous  sheath  of  tendon 
Muscle  pulley 
Mucous  bursa  or  sac 

Muscles  of  the  back 

Trapezius  muscle 

Transverse  muscle  of  nape 

Broadest  muscle  of  back 

Greater  rhomboid  muscle 

Lesser  rhomboid  muscle 

Levator    muscle    of   scapula    (O.    T. 

levator  anguli  scapulae) 
Inferior  posterior  serratus  muscle 
Superior  posterior  serratus  muscle 
Splenius  ("bandage")  muscle  of  neck 

(O.  T.  splenius  colli) 
Splenius  muscle  of  head 
Sacrospinal    muscle    (O.    T.    erector 

Iliocostal  muscle 

Iliocostal  muscle  of   loins    (O.    T. 

Iliocostal   muscle    of   back    (O.    T. 
musculus  accessorius) 

Iliocostal  muscle  of  neck  (O.  T.  cer- 

vicalis  ascendens) 
Longest  muscle 

Longest  muscle  of  back 

Longest  muscle  of  neck  (O.  T.  trans- 

versalis  cervicis) 
Longest    muscle    of    head    (O.    T, 

Spinal  muscle 

Spinal  muscle  of  back 

Spinal  muscle  of  neck  (O.  T.  spinaHs 

Spinal  muscle  of  head 
Semispinal  muscle 

Semispinal  muscle  of  back 
Semispinal  muscle  of  neck   (O.  T. 

semispinalis  colli) 
Semispinal  muscle  of  head  (O.  T. 



M.  multifidus 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

M.  auricularis  posterior 

Mm.  rotatores 
•  M.  rotatores  longi 
M.  rotatores  breves 

M.  interspinales 

Mm.  intertransversarii 

Mm.  intertransversarii  laterales 
Mm.  intertransversarii  mediales 
Mm.  intertransversarii  anteriores 
Mm.  intertransversarii  posteriores 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  major 

M.  rectus  capitis  posterior  minor 

M.  rectus  capitis  lateralis 
M.  obliquus  capitis  superior 
M.  obliquus  capitis  inferior 
Fascia  lumbodorsalis 
Fascia  nuchae 

Musculi  capitis 

M.  epicranius 

M.  frontalis 
M.  occipitalis 
M.  procerus 

M.  nasalis 

Pars  transversa 

Pars  alaris 
M.  depressor  septi 
M.  orbicularis  oculi 

Pars  palpebrals 

Pars  orbitalis 

Pars  lacrimalis  [Homeri] 

M.  auricularis  anterior 

M.  auricularis  superior 

M.  orbicularis  oris 
M.  triangularis 

(M.  transversus  menti) 
M.  risorius 
M.  zygomaticus 
M.  quadratus  labii  superioris 
Caput  zygomaticum 

Caput  infraorbital 

Caput  angulare 

M.  quadratus  labii  inferioris 

M.  caninus 

M.  buccinator 

Mm.  incisivi  labii  superioris 

Mm.  incisivi  labii  inferioris 

M.  mentalis 

M.  masseter 

M.  temporalis 

M.  pterygoideus  externus 

M.  pterygoideus  internus 

Galea  aponeurotica 

Fascia  buccopharyngea 
Fascia  parotideomasseterica 
Fascia  temporalis 

Musculi  OSS.  hyoidei 

M.  digastricus 

Venter  anterior 

Venter  posterior 
M.  stylohyoideus 
M.  mylohyoideus 
M.  geniohyoideus 

Musculi  colli 


Myology,  or  Musculature 


Multifidus   ("much  divided")   muscle 
(O.  T.  multifidus  spinae) 

Rotator  muscles 

Long  rotator  muscles 
Short  rotator  muscles 

Interspinal  muscles 

Intertransverse  muscles 

Lateral  intertransverse  muscles 
Medial  intertransverse  muscles 
Anterior  intertransverse  muscles 
Posterior  intertransverse  muscles 

Larger  posterior  straight  muscle  of  the 

Lesser  posterior  straight  muscle  of  the 

Lateral  straight  muscle  of  the  head 

Superior  oblique  muscle  of  the  head 

Inferior  oblique  muscle  of  the  head 

Lumbodorsal  fascia 

Fascia  of  the  nape 

Muscles  of  the  head 

Epicranius    muscle    (O.    T.    occipito- 

Frontal  muscle 

Occipital  muscle 

Procerus  ("prolonged")  muscle  (O. 
T.  pyramidalis  nasi) 
Muscle  of  the  nose 

Transverse  part 

Alar  part 
Depressor  muscle  of  the  septum 
Orbicular  muscle  of  the  eye   (O.  T. 
orbicularis  palpebrarum) 

Palpebral  part 

Orbital  part 

Lacrimal  part  (O.  T.  tensor  tarsi  or 
Horner's  muscle) 
Anterior    auricular    muscle     (O.     T. 

attrahens  auriculam) 
Superior  auricular  muscle  (O.  T.  atto- 

lens  auriculam) 

Posterior    auricular    muscle     (O.    T. 

retrahens  auriculam) 
Orbicular  muscle  of  the  mouth 
Triangular  muscle    (O.   T.    depressor 

anguli  oris) 
Transverse  muscle  of  the  chin 
Muscle  of  laughing 
Zygomatic  muscle 
Quadrate  muscle  of  upper  lip 

Zygomatic  head  (O.  T.  zygomaticus 

Infraorbital    head    (O.    T.    levator 
labii  superioris) 

Angular  head   (O.   T.   levator  labii 
superioris  alaeque  nasi) 
Quadrate  muscle  of  lower  lip  (O.  T. 

depressor  labii  inferioris) 
Canine  muscle   (O.  T.  levator  anguli 

Cheek  muscle 

Incisive  muscles  of  upper  lip 
Incisive  muscles  of  lower  lip 
Chin  muscle 
Masseter  muscle 
Temporal  muscle 
External  pterygoid  muscle 
Internal  pterygoid  muscle 
Aponeurotic  helmet  (O.  T.  epicranial 

Buccopharyngeal  fascia 
Parotideomasseteric  fascia 
Temporal  fascia 

Muscles  of  the  hyoid  bone 

Digastric  muscle 

Anterior  belly 

Posterior  belly 
Stylohyoid  muscle 
Mylohyoid  muscle 
Geniohyoid  muscle 

Muscles  of  the  neck 

Platysma,  or  flat  muscle  (O.  T.  pla- 
tysma  myoides) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

M.  sternocleidomastoideus 
M.  sternohyoideus 
M.  omohyoideus 

Venter  superior 

Venter  inferior 
M.  sternothyreoideus 
M.  thyreohyoideus 
(M.  levator  glandulae  thyreoideae) 

M.  longus  colli 
M.  longus  capitis 

M.  rectus  capitis  anterior 

M.  scalenus  anterior 
M.  scalenus  medius 
M.  scalenus  posterior 
(M.  scalenus  minimus) 
Fascia  colli 
Fascia  praevertebralis 

Musculi  Thoracis 

(M.  sternalis) 

M.  pectoralis  major 

Pars  clavicularis 

Pars  sternocostalis 

Pars  abdominalis 
M.  pectoralis  minor 
M.  subclavius 
M.  serratus  anterior 

Mm.  levatores  costarum 

Mm.  levatores  costarum  longi 
Mm.  levatores  costarum  breves 

Mm.  intercostales  externi 

Mm.  intercostales  interni 

Mm.  subcostales 

M.  transversus  thoracis 

Pars  lumbalis 
Crus  mediale 
Crus  intermedium 

Crus  laterale 

Pars  costalis 

Pars  sternalis 
Hiatus  aorticus 
Hiatus  oesophageus 
Centrum  tendineum 
Foramen  venae  cavae 
Arcus  lumbocostalis  medialis  [Halleri] 

Arcus  lumbocostalis  lateralis  [Halleri] 

Fascia  pectoralis 
Fascia  coracoclavicularis 

Musculi  abdominis 

M.  rectus  abdominis 

Falx  [aponeurotica]  inguinalis 

M.  pyramidal  is 

M.  obliquus  externus  abdominis 

M.  obliquus  internus  abdominis 

M.  cremaster 

M.  transversus  abdominis 

M.  quadratus  lumborum 

A  nnulus  umhilicalis 

Linea  alba 

Adminiculum  lineae  albae 
Inscriptiones  tendineae 
Lig.  suspensorium  penis  s.  clitoridis 

Lig.  fundiforme  penis 
Vagina  m.  recti  abdominis 
Linea   semicircularis  [Douglasi] 
Lig.  inguinale  [Pouparti] 
Lig.  lacunare  [Gimbernati] 
Lig.  inguinale  reflexum  [CoUesi] 

Annulus  inguinalis  subcutaneus 

Crus  superius 
Crus  inferius 
Fibrae  intercrurales 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Sternocleidomastoid  muscle 
Sternohyoid  muscle 
Omohyoid  muscle 

Superior  belly 

Inferior  belly 
Sternothyreoid  muscle 
Thyreohyoid  muscle 
Elevating     muscle     of     the     thyreoid 

Long  muscle  of  the  neck 
Long  muscle  of  the  head  (O.  T.  rectus 

capitis  anticus  major) 
Anterior  straight  muscle  of  the  head 

(O.  T.  rectus  capitis  anticus  minor) 
Anterior  scalene  muscle 
Middle  scalene  muscle 
Posterior  scalene  muscle 
Smallest  scalene  muscle 
Cervical  fascia 
Prevertebral  fascia 

Muscles  of  the  chest 

Sternal  muscle 
Greater  pectoral  muscle 

Clavicular  part 

Sternocostal  part 

Abdominal  part 
Smaller  pectoral  muscle 
Subclavius  muscle 
Anterior  serratus  muscle   (O.  T.  ser- 

ratus  magnus) 
Elevators  of  the  ribs 

Long  elevators  of  the  ribs 

Short  elevators  of  the  ribs 
External  intercostal  muscles 
Internal  intercostal  muscles 
Subcostal  muscles 
Transverse  muscle  of  thorax  (O.  T. 

triangularis  sterni) 

Lumbar  part 
Medial  crus 
Intermediate  crus 

Lateral  crus 

Costal  part 

Sternal  part 
Aortic  opening 
Oesophageal  opening 
Central  tendon 
Opening  of  the  vena  cava 
Medial  lumbocostal  arch  (O.  T.  liga- 

mentum  arcuatum  internum) 
Lateral  lumbocostal  arch  (O.  T.  liga- 

mentum  arcuatum  externum) 
Pectoral  fascia 
Coracoclavicular  fascia 

Muscles  of  the  abdomen 

Straight  muscle  of  the  abdomen 

Inguinal  aponeurotic  falx  (O.  T.  con- 
joined tendon) 

Pyramidal  muscle 

External  oblique  muscle  of  abdomen 

Internal  oblique  muscle  of  abdomen 

Cremasteric  muscle 

Transverse  muscle  of  abdomen 

Quadrate  muscle  of  the  loins 

Umbilical  ring 

White  line 

Stay  of  the  white  line 

Tendinous  inscriptions 

Suspensory    ligament  of  the  penis  or 

SKng-like  ligament  of  penis 

Sheath  of  the  rectus  muscle 

Semicircular  fold  of  Douglas 

Inguinal  ligament  of  Poupart 

Lacunar  ligament  of  Gimbernat 

Reflex  ligament  of  CoUes  (O.  T.  tri- 
angular fascia  of  the  abdomen) 

Subcutaneous  inguinal  ring  (O.  T.  ex- 
ternal abdominal  ring) 
Superior  pillar 
Inferior  pillar 

Intercrural  fibres  (O.  T.  intercolumnar 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Trigonum  lumbale  [Petiti] 
Linea  semilunaris  [Spigelii] 
Fascia  transversalis 

Canalis  inguinalis 

Annulus  inguinalis  abdominalis 

Ligo  interfoveolare  [Hesselbachi] 

Plica  epigastrica 
Fovea  inguinalis  lateralis 
Fovea  inguinalis  medialis 
Fovea  supravesicalis 

Musculi  coccygei 

M.  coccygeus 

M.  sacrococcygeus  anterior 

M.  sacrococcygeus  posterior 

Musculi  extremitatis  superioris 

M.  deltoideus 
M.  supraspinatus 
M.  infraspinatus 
M.  teres  minor 
M.  teres  major 
M.  subscapularis 
M.  biceps  brachii 

Caput  longum 

Vagina  mucosa  intertubercularis 

Caput  breve 

Lacertus  fibrosus 

M.  coracobrachialis 
M.  brachialis 

M.  triceps  brachii 

Caput  longum 

Caput  laterale 

Caput  mediale 
M.  anconaeus 
(M.  epitrochleoanconaeus) 
M.  pronator  teres    . 

Caput  humerale 

Caput  ulnare 
M.  flexor  carpi  radialis 
M.  palmaris  longus 
M.  flexor  carpi  ulnaris 

Caput  humerale 

Caput  ulnare 
M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

Caput  humerale 

Caput  radiale 
M.  flexor  digitorum  profundus 
M.  flexor  poUicis  longus 
M.  pronator  quadratus 
M.  brachioradialis 

M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 
M.  extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 
M.  extensor  digitorum  communis 
Juncturae  tendinum 

M.  extensor  digiti  quinti  proprius 

M.  extensor  carpi  ulnaris 
M.  supinator 

M.  abductor  pollicis  longus 

M.  extensor  pollicis  brevis 

M.  extensor  pollicis  longus 

M.  extensor  indicis  proprius 

M.  palmaris  brevis 

M.  abductor  pollicis  brevis 

M.  flexor  pollicis  brevis 

M.  opponens  pollicis 

M.  adductor  pollicis 

M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 

M.  flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 

M.  opponens  digiti  quinti 

Mm.  lumbricales 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Lumbar  triangle  of  Petit 

Semilunar  line  of  Spigelius 

Transversal  fascia  (O.  T.  transverse 

Inguinal  canal 

Abdominal  inguinal  ring  (O.  T.  in- 
ternal abdominal  ring) 

Interfoveolar  ligament  (O.  T.  Hessel- 
bach's  ligament) 

Epigastric  fold 

Lateral  inguinal  fovea 

Medial  inguinal  fovea 

Supravesical  fovea 

Coccygeal  muscles 

Coccygeal  muscle 

Anterior  sacrococcygeal  muscle 

Posterior  sacrococcygeal  muscle 

Muscles  of  the  upper  extremity 

Deltoid  muscle 
Supraspinous  muscle 
Infraspinous  muscle 
Smaller  round  muscle 
Larger  round  muscle 
Subscapular  muscle 
Biceps  muscle  of  upper  arm 

Long  head 

Intertubercular  mucous  sheath 

Short  head 

Fibrous  lacertus  ("muscle")  (O.  T. 
bicipital  fascia) 
Coracobrachial  muscle 
Brachial  muscle  (O.  T.  brachialis  an- 

Triceps  muscle  of  upper  arm 

Long  head 

Lateral  head 

Medial  head 
Elbow  muscle 
Epitrochlear  elbow  muscle 
Round  pronator  muscle   (O.  T.  pro- 
nator radii  teres) 

Humeral  head 

Ulnar  head  (O.  T.  coronoid  head) 
Radial  flexor  muscle  of  wrist 
Long  palmar  muscle 
Ulnar  flexor  muscle  of  wrist 

Humeral  head 

Ulnar  head 
Superficial  flexor  muscle  of  fingers 

Humeral  head 

Radial  head 
Deep  flexor  muscles  of  fingers 
Long  flexor  muscle  of  thumb 
Quadrate  pronator  muscle 
Brachioradial  muscle  (O.  T.  supinator 

Long  radial  extensor  muscle  of  carpus 
Short  radial  extensor  muscle  of  carpus 
Common  extensor  muscle  of  fingers 

Junctions  of  the  tendons;    aponeu- 
rotic bridges 
Proper  extensor  muscle  of  fifth  finger 

(O.  T.  extensor  minimi  digiti) 
Ulnar  extensor  muscle  of  wrist 
Supinator    muscle    (O.    T.    supinator 

Long  abductor  muscle  of  thumb  (O.  T. 

extensor  ossis  metacarpi  poUicis) 
Short  extensor  muscle  of  thumb  (O.  T. 

extensor  primi  internodii  pollicis) 
Long  extensor  muscle  of  thumb  (O.  T. 

extensor  secundi  internodii  pollicis) 
Proper  extensor  muscle  of  index-finger 

(O.  T.  extensor  indicis) 
Short  palmar  muscle 
Short  abductor  muscle  of  thumb   (O. 

T.  abductor  pollicis) 
Short  flexor  muscle  of  thumb 
Opposing  muscle  of  thumb 
Adductor  muscle  of  thumb 
Abductor  muscle  of  fifth  finger 
Short  flexor  muscle  of  fifth  finger 
Opposing  muscle  of  fifth  finger 
Lumbrical  muscles 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Mm.  interossei  dorsales 
Mm.  interossei  volares 
Fascia  axillaris 
Fascia  subscapularis 
Fascia  supraspinata 
Fascia  infraspinata 
Fascia  brachii 
Septum       intermusculare 

Septum        intermusculare 



M.  gemellus  superior 
M.  gemellus  inferior 
M.  quadratus  femoris 
M.  sartorius 
M.  quadriceps  femoris 

M.  rectus  femoris 
M.  vastus  lateralis 

M.  vastus  intermedius 

M.  vastus  medialis 

Sulcus  bicipitalis  medialis 
Sulcus  bicipitalis  lateralis 
Fascia  antibrachii 
Fascia  dorsalis  manus 
Lig.  carpi  dorsale 

Aponeurosis  palmaris 
Fasciculi  transversi 

M.  articularis  genu 

M.  pectineus 

M.  adductor  longus 

M.  gracilis 

M.  adductor  brevis 

M.  adductor  magnus 

M.  adductor  minimus 

Lig.  carpi  transversum 

Lig.  carpi  volare 

Chiasma  tendinum 

Vinculum  tendinum 

Vaginae  mucosae 

Ligg.  vaginalia  digitorum  manus 

Ligg.  annularia  digitorum  manus 

Ligg.  cruciata  digitorum  manus 

Musculi  extremitatis  inferioris 

M.  iliopsoas 

M.  iliacus 

M.  psoas  major 

M.  psoas  minor 

M.  glutaeus  maximus 

M.  glutaeus  medius 

M.  glutaeus  minimus 

M.  tensor  fasciae  latae 

M.  piriformis 

M.  obturator  internus 

M.  obturator  externus 
M.  biceps  femoris 

-Caput  longum 

Caput  breve 
M.  semitendinosus 
M.  semimembranosus 
M.  tibialis  anterior 

M.  extensor  digitorum  longus 

M.  peronaeus  tertius 

M.  extensor  hallucis  longus 

M.  peronaeus  longus 

M.  peronaeus  brevis 

M.  triceps  surae 

M.  gastrocnemius 
Caput  laterale 
Caput  mediale 

M.  soleus 
Arcus  tendineus  m.  solei 
Tendo  calcaneus  [Achillis] 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 

Palmar  interosseous  muscles 

Axillary  fascia 

Subscapular  fascia 

Supraspinous  fascia 

Infraspinous  fascia 

Brachial  fascia 

Medial  intermuscular  septum  of  arm 
(O.  T.  internal  intermuscular  sep- 

Lateral  intermuscular  septum  of  arm 
(O.  T.  external  intermuscular  sep- 

Medial  bicipital  furrow 

Lateral  bicipital  furrow 

Antibrachial  fascia 

Fascia  of  back  of  hand 

Dorsal  ligament  of  wrist  (O.  T.  pos- 
terior annular  ligament) 

Palmar  aponeurosis 

Transverse  fibres  (O.  T.  transverse 
superficial  ligament) 

Transverse  carpal  ligament  (O.  T. 
anterior  annular  ligament) 

Palmar  carpal  ligament 

Crossing  of  the  tendons 

Bands  of  union  of  the  tendons 

Mucous  sheaths 

Ligaments  of  the  sheaths  of  the  fingers 

Annular  ligaments  of  the  fingers 

Cruciate  ligaments  of  the  fingers 

Muscles  of  the  lower  extremity 

Iliopsoas  muscle 
Iliac  muscle 
Greater  psoas  muscle 
Lesser  psoas  muscle 
Greatest  gluteal  muscle 
Middle  gluteal  muscle 
Least  gluteal  muscle 
Tensor  muscle  of  broad  fascia 
Piriform  muscle 
Internal  obturator  muscle 

Superior  twin  muscle 
Inferior  twin  muscle 
Quadrate  muscle  of  thigh 
Sartorius  ("tailor")  muscle 
Quadriceps  ("  four-headed")  muscle  of 

Straight  muscle  of  thigh 

Lateral  great  muscle  (O.  T.  vastus 

Intermediate  great  muscle   (O.   T. 

Medial  great  m^uscle  (O.  T.  vastus 
Articular  muscle  of  knee  (O.  T.  sub- 

Pectineus  muscle 
Long  adductor  muscle 
Slender  muscle 
Short  adductor  muscle 
Great  adductor  muscle 
Smallest  adductor  muscle  (O.  T.  upper 

portion  of  adductor  magnus) 
External  obturator  muscle 
Biceps  ("two-headed")  muscle  of  thigh 

Long  head 

Short  head 
Semitendinosus  muscle 
Semimembranosus  muscle 
Anterior  tibial  muscle  (O.  T.  tibialis 

Long  extensor  of  digits 
Third  peroneal  muscle 
Long  extensor  of  great  toe 
Long  peroneal  muscle 
Short  peroneal  muscle 
Triceps  muscle  of  calf 

Gastrocnemius  muscle 
Lateral  head 
Medial  head 

Soleus  muscle 
Tendinous  arch  of  soleus  muscle 
Tendon  of  the  heel  (of  Achilles)  (O.  T. 

tendo  Achillis) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

M.  plantaris 
M.  popliteus 
M.  tibialis  posterior 

M.  flexor  digitorum  longus 
M.  flexor  hallucis  longus 
M.  extensor  hallucis  brevis 
M.  extensor  digitorum  brevis 
M.  abductor  hallucis 
M.  flexor  hallucis  brevis 
M.  adductor  hallucis 

Caput  obliquum 

Caput  transversum 
M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 
M.  flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 
M.  opponens'  digiti  quinti 
M.  flexor  digitorum  brevis 
M.  quadratus  plantae 
Mm.  lumbricales 
Mm.  interossei  dorsales 
Mm.  interossei  plantares 
Fascia  lata 

Tractus  iliotibialis  [Maissiati] 
Septum       intermusculare       [femoris] 


Fossa  iliopectinea 
Fascia  pectinea 

Canalis  femoralis 
Annulus  femoralis 
Septum   femorale  [Cloqueti] 
Fossa  ovalis 

Margo  falciformis 
Cornu  superius 
Cornu  infer ius 
Fascia  cribrosa 
Fascia  cruris 

Septum        intermusculare        anterius 

Septum       intermusculare       posterius 

Lig.  transversum  cruris 

Lig.  laciniatum 
Lig.  cruciatum  cruris 

Septum       intermusculare       [femoris] 

Canalis  adductorius  [Hunteri] 

Hiatus  tendineus  [adductorius] 
Fascia  ihaca 
Fascia  iliopectinea 
Lacuna  musculorum 
Lacuna  vasorum 

Trigonum    femorale    [Fossa    Scarpae 

Retinaculum  mm.  peronaeorum  sup. 

Retinaculum    mm.    peronaeorum    in- 

Fascia  dorsalis  pedis 
Aponeurosis  plantaris 

Fasciculi      transversi      aponeurosis 
Vaginae  mucosae 
Ligg.  annularia 
Ligg.  vaginalia 
Ligg.  cruciata 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Plantaris  muscle 

Popliteus  muscle 

Posterior  tibial  muscle  (O.  T.  tibialis 

Long  flexor  of  the  digits 

Long  flexor  of  the  great  toe 

Short  extensor  of  the  great  toe 

Short  extensor  of  the  digits 

Abductor  of  the  great  toe 

Short  flexor  of  the  great  toe 

Adductor  of  the  great  toe 
Oblique  head 
Transverse  head 

Abductor  of  the  fifth  toe 

Short  flexor  muscle  of  fifth  toe 

Opposing  muscle  of  fifth  toe 

Short  flexor  muscle  of  the  toes 

Quadrate  muscle  of  the  sole 

Lumbrical  muscles 

Dorsal  interosseous  muscles 

Plantar  interosseous  muscles 

Broad  fascia 

Iliotibial  band 

Lateral  intermuscular  septum  of  thigh 
(O.  T.  external  intermuscular  sep- 

Medial  intermuscular  septum  of  thigh 
(O.  T.  internal  intermuscular  sep- 

Adductor  canal  of  Hunter  (O.  T.  Hun- 
ter's canal) 

Tendinous  adductor  gap 

Iliac  fascia 

Iliopectineal  fascia 

Muscle  gap 

Vessel  gap 

Femoral  triangle  (greater  fossa  of 
Scarpa)  (O.  T.  Scarpa's  triangle) 

Iliopectineal  fossa 

Pectineal  fascia  (O.  T.  pubic  portion 
of  fascia  lata) 

Femoral  canal  (O.  T.  crural  canal) 
Femoral  ring  (O.  T.  crural  ring) 
Femoral  septum  of  Cloquet 
Oval  fossa 
Falciform  margin 
Superior  horn 
Inferior  horn 
Cribriform  fascia 

Fascia  of  the  leg 

Anterior  (fibular)  intermuscular  sep- 
tum (O.  T.  anterior  peroneal  sep- 

Posterior  (fibular)  intermuscular  sep- 
tum (O.  T.  posterior  peroneal  sep- 

Transverse  ligament  of  the  leg  (O.  T. 
upper  or  broad  part  of  anterior  an- 
nular ligament) 

Fringed  ligament  (O.  T.  internal  annu- 
lar ligament) 

Cruciate  ligament  of  the  leg  (O.  T. 
lower  part  of  anterior  annular  liga- 
ment of  leg) 

Upper  retaining  band  of  peroneal 

Lower  retaining  band  of  peroneal 

Dorsal  fascia  of  the  foot 

Plantar  aponeurosis 

Transverse  bundles  of  plantar  apo- 

Mucous  sheaths 

Annular  ligaments 

Sheath  ligaments 

Cruciate  ligaments 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Bursac  ct  Vaginae  mucosae 

Bursa  mucosa  subcutanea 
Bursa  mucosa  submuscularis 
Bursa  mucosa  subfascialis 

Bursa  mucosa  subtendinea 
Vagina  mucosa  tendinis 

B.  musculi  trochlearis 

B.  m.  tensoris  veli  palatini 

B.  subcutanea  praementalis 

B.  subcutanea  prominentiae  laryngeae 

B.  m.  sternohyoidei 

B.  m.  thyreohyoidei 

B.  subcutanea  sacralis 

B.  coccygea 

B.  subcutanea  acromialis 

B.  subacromialis 

B.  subdeltoidea 

B.  m.  coracobrachialis 

B.  m.  infraspinati 

B.  m.  subscapularis 

B.  m.  teretis  majoris 

B.  m.  latissimi  dorsi 

B.  subcutanea  olecrani 

B.  intratendinea  olecrani 

B.  subtendinea  olecrani 

B.     subcutanea    epicondyli    [humeri] 

B.     subcutanea    epicondyli    piumeri] 

B.  bicipitoradialis 
B.  cubitalis  interossea 
Vagina     tendinum     mm.     abductoris 

longi  et  extensoris  brevis  pollicis 

Vagina   tendinis   m.    extensoris   digiti 

Vagina   tendinis   m.    extensoris   carpi 

B.  m.  extensoris  carpi  radialis  brevis 

Bursae  subcutaneae  metacarpophalan- 

geae  dorsales 
Bursae  subcutaneae  digitorum  dorsales 

B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  ulnaris 

B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  radialis 

Vagina  tendinum  mm.  flexorum  com- 

Vag.  tendinis  m.  flexoris  pollicis  longi 

Bursae  intermetacarpophalangeae 

Vaginae  tendinum  digitales 

B.  trochanterica  subcutanea 

B.    trochanterica   m.    glutaei   maximi 

B.    troch.    m.    glutaei   medii   anterior 

B.   troch.   m.   glutaei  medii  posterior 

Vagina    tendinum    mm.    extensorum      B.  troch.  m.  glutaei  minimi 
carpi  radialium 

Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris    pollicis 

Vagina  tendinum  mm.  extensoris  digi- 
torum communis  et  extensoris  indicis 

B.  m.  piriformis 

B.  m.  obturatorii  interni 

Bursae  glutaeofemorales 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Bursac  and  mucous  sheaths 

Subcutaneous  mucous  bursa 
Submuscular  mucous  bursa 
Subfascial  mucous  bursa 

Subtendinous  mucous  bursa 
Mucous  sheath  of  tendon 

Bursa  of  the  trochlear  muscle 
Bursa  of  tensor  muscle  of  soft  palate 
Subcutaneous  premental  bursa 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  prominence 

of  the  larynx 
Bursa  of  the  sternohyoid  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  thyreohyoid  muscle 
Subcutaneous  sacral  bursa 
Coccygeal  bursa 
Subcutaneous  acromial  bursa 
Subacromial  bursa 
Subdeltoid  bursa 

Bursa  of  the  coracobrachial  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  infraspinatus  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  subscapular  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  greater  round  muscle 
Bursa  of  the  broadest  muscle  of  back 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  olecranon 
Intratendinous  bursa  of  the  olecranon 
Subtendinous  bursa  of  the  olecranon 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  lateral  epi- 

condyle  of  humerus 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  medial  epi- 

condyle  of  humerus 
Bicipitoradial  bursa 
Interosseous  bursa  of  the  elbow 
Sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  long  ab- 
ductor and  short  extensor  muscles  of 
the  thumb 
Sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  radial 

extensor  muscles  of  the  wrist 
Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  long  ex- 
tensor muscle  of  the  thumb 
Sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  common 
extensor  muscle  of  the  digits  and 

of  the  extensor  muscle  of  the  index 

Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  extensor 
muscle  of  the  little  finger 

Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  ulnar  ex- 
tensor muscle  of  the  wrist 

Bursa  of  the  short  radial  extensor 
muscle  of  the  wrist 

Dorsal  subcutaneous  metacarpopha- 
langeal bursa 

Dorsal  subcutaneous  bursae  of  the 

Bursa  of  the  ulnar  flexor  muscle  of  the 

Bursa  of  the  radial  flexor  muscle  of  the 

Sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the  common 
flexor  muscles 

Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  long  flexor 
muscle  of  the  thumb 

Intermetacarpophalangeal  bursae 

Digital  sheaths  of  the  tendons 

Subcutaneous  trochanteric  bursa 

Trochanteric  bursa  of  the  great  glu- 
teal muscle 

Anterior  trochanteric  bursa  of  the  mid- 
dle gluteal  muscle 

Posterior  trochanteric  bursa  of  the 
middle  gluteal  muscle 

Trochanteric  bursa  of  the  smallest  glu- 
teal muscle 

Bursa  of  the  piriform  muscle 

Bursa  of  the  internal  obturator  muscle 

Glutaeofemoral  bursae 

44  Anatomical 

B.  ischiadica  m.  glutaei  maximi 

B.  m.  recti  femoris 

B.  iliopectinea 

B.  iliaca  subtendinea 

B.  m.  pectinei 

B.  m.  bicipitis  femoris  superior 

B.  praepatellaris  subcutanea 

B.  praepatellaris  subfascialis 

B.  praepatellaris  subtendinea 

B.  suprapatellaris 

B.  infrapatellaris  subcutanea 

B.  infrapatellaris  profunda 

B.  subcutanea  tuberositatis  tibiae 

B.  m.  sartorii  propria 

B.  anserina 

B.  m.  bicipitis  femoris  inferior  . 

B.  m.  poplitei 

B.  bicipitogastrocnemialis 

B.  m.  gastrocnemii  lateralis 

B.  m.  gastrocnemii  medialis 

B.  m.  semimembranosi 

B.  subcutanea  malleoli  lateralis 


Vag.    tendinis    m.    tibialis    anterioris 

Vag.    tendinis    m.    extensoris   hallucis 

Vaginae  tendinum  m.  extensoris  digi- 

torum  pedis  longi 

Vaginae    tendinum    m.    flexoris    digi- 
torum  pedis  longi 

Vag.    tendinis    m.    tibialis    posterioris 

Vag.  tendinis  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

Vag.     tendinum     mm.     peronaeorum 

Bursa  sinus  tarsi 
B.    subtendinea   m.   tibialis   anterioris 

B.  subtendinea  m.  tibialis  posterioris 

B.  subcutanea  calcanea 

B.  tendinis  calcanei  [Achillis] 

Vag.  tendinis  m.  peronaei  longi  plan- 

Bursae  intermetatarsophalangeae 
Bursae  mm.  lumbricalium  pedis 

B.  subcutanea  malleoli  medialis 

Vaginae  tendinum  digitales  pedis 

Myology,  or  Musculature 


Sciatic  bursa  of  the  greatest  gluteal 

Bursa  of  the  straight  thigh  muscle 
Iliopectineal  bursa 
Subtendinous  iliac  bursa 
Bursa  of  the  pectineus  muscle 
Superior  bursa  of  the  biceps  muscle  of 

the  thigh 
Subcutaneous  prepatellar  bursa 
Subfascial  prepatellar  bursa 
Subtendinous  prepatellar  bursa 
Suprapatellar  bursa 
Subcutaneous  infrapatellar  bursa 
Deep  infrapatellar  bursa 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  tuberosity 

of  the  tibia 
Proper  bursa  of  the  sartorius  muscle 
Anserine  bursa 
Inferior  bursa  of  the  biceps  muscle  of 

the  thigh 
Bursa  of  the  popliteus  muscle 
Bicipitogastrocnemial  bursa 
Lateral    bursa    of    the    gastrocnemius 

Medial    bursa  of    the  gastrocnemius 

Bursa  of  the  semimembranosus  muscle 
Subcutaneous  bursa  of  the  lateral  mal- 
Subcutaneous    bursa    of    the    medial 


Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  anterior 

tibial  muscle 
Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  long  exten- 
sor muscle  of  the  great  toe 
Sheaths   of    the   tendons   of   the   long 

extensor  muscle  of  the  digits  of  the 

Sheaths   of    the   tendons   of   the   long 

flexor  muscle   of   the  digits   of   the 

Sheath  of  the  tendon  of  the  posterior 

tibial  muscle 
Sheath    of    the    tendon    of    the    long 

flexor  muscle  of  the  great  toe 
Common  sheath  of  the  tendons  of  the 

peroneal  muscles 
Bursa  of  the  hollow  of  the  ankle 
Subtendinous    bursa    of    the    anterior 

tibial  muscle 
Subtendinous   bursa   of    the   posterior 

tibial  muscle 
Subcutaneous  calcanean  bursa 
Bursa   of    the    calcanean    tendon   of 

Sheath  of  the  plantar  tendon  of  the 

long  peroneal  muscle 
Intermetatarsophalangeal  bursae 
Bursae  of    the  lumbrical   muscles  of 

the  foot 
Digital  sheaths  of  the  tendons  of  the 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Tunica  albuginea 
Tunica  fibrosa 
Tunica  adventitia 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lamina  propria  mucosae 

Lamina  muscularis  mucosae 

Tela  submucosa 

Plica  mucosa 

Tunica  muscularis 
Tunica  serosa 

Tela  subserosa 

Plica  serosa 

Ligamentum  serosum 

Organon  parenchymatosum 



Glandula  mucosa 
Musculus  viscerum 

Apparatus  digestorius 

Cavum  oris 


Corpus  adiposum  buccae 

Vestibulum  oris 

Cavum  oris  proprium 

Rima  oris 

Labia  oris 

Labium  superius 

Labium  inferius 
Commissura  labiorum 
Angulus  oris 

Palatum  durum 

Palatum  moUe 
Raphe  palati 

Tunica  mucosa  oris 

Frenulum  labii  superioris 

Frenulum  labii  inferioris 


Caruncula  sublingualis 

Plica  sublingualis 

Plicae  palatinae  transversae 

Papilla  incisiva 

Glandulae  oris     • 
Gl.  labiales 
Gl.  buccales 
Gl.  molares 
Gl.  palatinae 
Gl.  linguales 
Gl.  lingualis  anterior  [Blandini,  Nuhni] 

Gl.  sublingualis 

Ductus  sublingualis  major 

Ductus  sublinguals  minores 




Albugineous  coat 
Fibrous  coat 

Adventitious  (external)  coat 
Mucous  coat 

Proper  layer  of  the  mucosa 

Muscular  layer  of  the  mucosa 

Submucous  web 

Mucous  fold 

Muscular  coat 
Serous  coat 

Subserous  web 

Serous  fold 

Serous  ligament 

Parenchymatous  organ 



Little  lobe 
Mucous  gland 
Muscle  of  the  viscera 

Digestive   apparatus 

Mouth  cavity 


Fat  body  of  cheek 

Entrance  to  mouth 

Mouth  cavity  proper 


Lips  of  mouth 

Upper  lip 

Lower  lip 
Junction  of  lips 
Angle  of  mouth 

Hard  palate 

Soft  palate 
Middle  ridge  of  palate 

Mucous  membrane  of  mouth 

Check-cord  of  upper  lip 

Check-cord  of  lower  lip 


Sublingual  caruncle 

Sublingual  fold 

Transverse  palatine  folds 

Incisor  papilla 

Glands  of  mouth 

Labial  glands 

Buccal  glands 

Molar  glands 

Palatine  glands 

Lingual  glands 

Anterior  lingual  gland   (O.  T.  gland 

of  Nuhn) 
Sublingual  gland 
Larger  sublingual  duct 
Smaller  sublingual  ducts 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Gl.  submaxillaris 

Ductus  submaxillaris  [Whartoni] 

Gl.  parotis 

Processus  retromandibularis 
Gl.  parotis  accessoria 

Ductus  parotideus  [Stenonis] 


Corona  dentis 

Tubercula  [coronae]  dentis 

Collum  dentis 

Radix  [Radices]  dentis 

Apex  radicis  dentis 

Facies  masticatoria 

Facies  labialis  [buccalis] 

Facies  lingualis 

Facies  contactus 

Facies  medialis)  dentium  incisivo- 
Facies  lateralis)  rum  et  caninorum 
Facies  anterior  "j  dentium  praemola 
Facies  posterior]  rium  et  molarium 

Cavum  dentis 

Pulpa  dentis 

Papilla  dentis 

Canalis  radicis  dentis 

Foramen  apicis  dentis 

Substantia  eburnea 

Substantia  adamantina 

Substantia  ossea 

Canaliculi  dentales 

Spatia  interglobularia 

Prismata  adamantina 

Cuticula  dentis 

Periosteum  alveolare 

Arcus  dentalis  superior 

Arcus  dentalis  inferior 

Dentes  incisivi 

Dentes  canini 

Dentes  praemolares 

Dentes  molares 

Dens  serotinus 
Dentes  permanentes 
Dentes  decidui 


Dorsum  linguae 
Radix  linguae 
Corpus  linguae 
Facies  inferior  [linguae] 

Plica  fimbriata 
Margo  lateralis  [linguae] 
Apex  linguae 
Tunica  mucosa  linguae 
Frenulum  linguae 
Papillae  linguales 
Papillae  filiformes 
Papillae  conicae 
Papillae  fungiformes 
Papillae  lenticulares 
Papillae  vallatae 

Papillae  foliatae 

Sulcus  medianus  linguae 

Sulcus  terminalis 

Foramen  caecum  linguae  (Morgagnii) 

(Ductus  lingualis) 

Ductus  thyreoglossus 

Tonsilla  lingualis 

FoUiculi  linguales 
Septum  linguae 
Musculi   linguae 

M.  genioglossus 

M.  hyoglossus 

M.  chondroglossus 

M.  styloglossus 

M.  longitudinalis  superior 

M.  longitudinalis  inferior 

M.  transversus  linguae 
M.  verticalis  linguae 


Isthmus  faucium 



Submaxillary  gland 

Submaxillary  duct   (O.  T.  Wharton's 

Parotid  gland 

Retromandibular  process 
Accessory  parotid  (O.  T.  socia  paro- 

Parotid  duct  (O.  T.  Steno's  duct) 
Mixed  mouth  secretions 


Crown  of  tooth 

Tubercles  of  crown  of  tooth 

Neck  of  tooth 

Root  of  tooth 

Apex  of  root  of  tooth 


Labial  surface 

Lingual  surface 

Contact  surface 

Medial  surface  ^        of  incisor 
Lateral  surface  3  and  canine  teeth 
Anterior  surface  )  of  premolars 
Posterior  surface  J    and  molars 

Tooth  cavity 

Tooth  pulp 

Papilla  of  tooth 

Root  canal  of  tooth 

Foramen  of  apex  of  tooth 




Smaller  dental  canals 

Granular  layer 

Enamel  prisms 

Cuticle  of  tooth 

Alveolar  periosteum 

Superior  dental  arch 

Inferior  dental  arch 

Incisor  teeth 

Canine  teeth 

Premolar  teeth  (O.  T.  bicuspids) 

Molar  teeth 

Late  tooth  (O.  T.  wisdom  tooth) 
Permanent  teeth 
Deciduous  teeth 


Dorsum  of  tongue 
Root  of  tongue 
Body  of  tongue 
Inferior  surface 

Fimbriated  fold 
Lateral  margin 
Tip  of  the  tongue 
Mucous  membrane  of  tongue 
Frenulum  (check-rein)  of  tongue 
Lingual  papillae 
Filiform  papillae 
Conical  papillae 
Fungiform  papillae 
Lenticular  papillae 
Vallate  papillae  (O.  T.  circumvallate 

Foliate  papillae 
Median  sulcus  of  tongue 
Terminal  sulcus 
Blind  foramen  of  tongue 
Lingual  duct 
Thyreoglossal  duct 
Lingual  tonsil 

Lingual  folliculi 
Septum  of  tongue 
Muscles    of    tongue 

Genioglossus  muscle 

Hyoglossus  muscle 

Chrondroglossus  muscle 

Styologlossus  muscle 

Superior  longitudinal  muscle  (O.  T. 
superficial  lingual) 

Inferior  longitudinal  muscle  (O.  T. 
inferior  lingual) 

Transverse  muscle  of  tongue 

Vertical  muscle  of  tongue 

Fauces,  or  throat 

Isthmus  of  fauces 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Velum  palatinum 
Uvula  [palatina] 
Arcus  palatini 

Arcus  glossopalatinus 

Arcus  pharyngopalatinus 

Plica  salpingopalatina 
Tonsilla  palatina 

Fossulae  tonsillares 
Sinus  tonsillaris 
Plica  triangularis 
Fossa  supratonsillaris 

Musculi  palati  et  faucium 

M.  levator  veli  palatini 

M.  tensor  veli  palatini 

M.  uvulae 

M.  glossopalatinus 

M.  pharyngopalatinus 


Cavum  pharyngis 

Fornix  pharyngis 

Pars  nasalis 

Pars  oralis 

Pars  laryngea 

Ostium  pharyngeum  tubae 

Labium  anterius 

Labium  posterius 

Torus  tubarius 
Plica  salpingopharyngea 
Recessus  pharyngeus  [Rosenmuelleri] 

(Bursa  pharyngea) 
Recessus  piriformis 
M.  stylopharyngeus 
Fascia  pharyngobasilaris 
Tunica  mucosa 

Gl.  pharyngeae 
Tonsilla  pharyngea 
Fossulae  tonsillares 
Tela  submucosa 

Tunica  muscularis  pharyngis 

Raphe  pharyngis 

Raphe  pterygomandibularis 

M.  constrictor  pharyngis  superior 

M.  pterygopharyrigeus 

M.  buccopharyngeus 

M.  mylopharyngeus 

M.  glossopharyngeus 
M.  salpingopharyngeus 
M.  constrictor  pharyngis  medius 

M.  chondropharyngeus 

M.  ceratopharyngeus 
M.  constrictor  pharyngis  inferior 

M.  thyreopharyngeus 

M.  cricopharyngeus 

Tubus  digestorius 


Pars  cervicalis 
Pars  thoracahs 
Pars  abdominalis 
Tunica  adventitia 
Tunica  muscularis 
M.  bronchooesophageus 
M.  pleurooesophageus 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
Gl.  oesophageae 


[G  aster] 
Paries  anterior 
Paries  posterior 
Curvatura  ventriculi  major 
Curvatura  ventriculi  minor 
Fundus  ventriculi 



Palatine  curtain 
Palatine  arches 

Glossopalatine  arch  (O.  T.  anterior 
pillar  of  fauces) 

Pharyngopalatine  arch   (O.  T.  pos- 
terior pillar  of  fauces) 
Tubopalatine  fold 
Palatine  tonsil 

Tonsillar  crypts 
Tonsillar  sinus 
Triangular  fold 
Supratonsillar  fossa 

Muscles  of  palate  and  fauces 

Levator  muscle  of  palatine  curtain  (O. 
T.  levator  palati) 

Tensor  muscle  of  palatine  curtain  (O. 
T.  tensor  palati) 

Muscle  of  uvula  (O.  T.  azygos  u\ailae) 

Glossopalatine  muscle  (O.  T.  palato- 

Pharyngopalatine  muscle  (O.  T.  pal- 


Cavity  of  pharynx 

Vault  of  pharynx 

Nasal  part  (O.  T.  nasopharynx) 

Oral  part  (O.  T.  oral  pharynx) 

Laryngeal  part  (O.T.  laryngopharynx) 

Pharyngeal  opening  of  Eustachian  tube 

Anterior  lip 

Posterior  lip 

Tubal  projection 
Salpingopharyngeal  fold 
Pharyngeal  recess  of  Rosenmueller  (O 

T.  recessus  infundibuliformis) 
Pharyngeal  bursa 

Piriform  recess  (O.  T.  sinus  piriformis) 
Stylopharyngeus  muscle 
Pharyngobasilar  fascia 
Mucous  membrane 

Pharyngeal  glands 

Pharyngeal  tonsil 

Tonsillar  crypts 
Submucous  web    (O.   T.    pharyngeal 

Muscular  coat  of  pharynx 
Raphe  of  pharynx 
Pterygomandibular  raphe 
Superior  constrictor  muscle  of  pharynx 

Pterygopharyngeal  muscle 

Buccopharyngeal  muscle 

Mylopharyngeal  muscle 

Glossopharyngeal  muscle 
Salpingopharyngeal  muscle 
Middle  constrictor  muscle  of  pharynx 

Chrondropharyngeal  muscle 

Ceratopharyngeal  muscle 
Inferior  constrictor  muscle  of  pharynx 

Thyreopharyngeal  muscle 

Cricopharyngeal  muscle 

Digestive  tube 


Cervical  part 
Thoracic  part 
Abdominal  part 
Adventitious  coat 
Muscular  coat 
Broncho-oesophageal  muscle 
Pleuro- oesophageal  muscle 
Submucous  layer 
Mucous  membrane 

Muscular  layer  of  mucosa 
Oesophageal  glands 


Anterior  wall 

Posterior  wall 

Greater  curvature  of  stomach 

Lesser  curvature  of  stomach 


Fundus  of  stomach 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Corpus  ventriculi 
Pars  cardiaca 
Pars  pylorica 
(Antrum  cardiacum) 
Antrum  pyloricum 
Tunica  serosa 
Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  longitudinale 

Ligg.  pylori 

Stratum  circulare 

M.  sphincter  pylori 

Fibrae  obliquae 
Valvula  pylori 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
Areae  gastricae 
Plicae  villosae 
Foveolae  gastricae 
Glandulae  gastricae  [propriae] 
Glandulae  pyloricae 
Noduli  lymphatici  gastrici 
Succus  gastricus 

Intestinum  tenue 

Tunica  serosa 
Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  longitudinale 

Stratum  circulare 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
Plicae  circulares  [Kerkringi] 

Villi  intestinales 

Gl.  intestinales  [Lieberkuehni] 

Noduli  lymphatici  solitarii 

Noduli   lymphatici   aggregati   [Peyeri] 


Succus  entericus 
Pars  superior 
Pars  descendens 
Pars  inferior 

Pars  horizontal  is  [inferior] 

Pars  ascendens 
Flexura  duodeni  superior 
Flexura  duodeni  inferior 
Flexura  duodenojejunalis 
M.  suspensorius  duodeni 

Plica  longitudinalis  duodeni 
Papilla  duodeni  [Santorini] 
Gl.  duodenales  [Brunneri] 
Intestinum       tenue      mesen 

t  e  r  i  a  le 
Intestinum  jejunum 
Intestinum  ileum 

Intestinum  crassum 

Intestinum   caecum 
Valvula  coli 

Labium  superius 
Labium  inferius 
Frenula  valvulae  coli 
Processus  vermiformis 

(Valvula  processus  vermiformis) 
Noduli  aggregati  processus  vermifor- 
Colon  ascendens 
Flexura  coli  dextra 
Colon  transversum 
Flexura  coli  sinistra 
Colon  descendens 
Colon  sigmoideum 
Plicae  semilunares  coli 
Haustra  coli 
Tunica  serosa 
Appendices  epiploicae 



Body  of  stomach 
Cardiac  part 
Pyloric  part 
Cardiac  antrum 
Pyloric  antrum 
Serous  coat 
Muscular  coat 

Longitudinal  layer 

Pyloric  ligaments 

Circular  layer 

Sphincter  muscle  of  pylorus 

Oblique  fibres 
Pyloric  valve 
Submucous  layer 
Mucous  membrane 

Muscular  layer  of  mucosa 
Gastric  areas 
Folds  of  villi 
Gastric  pits 
Gastric  glands  proper 
Pyloric  glands 
Gastric  lymph-nodules 
Gastric  juice 

Small  or  thin  intestine 

Serous  coat 
Muscular  coat 

Longitudinal  layer 

Circular  layer 
Submucous  coat 
Mucous  coat 

Muscular  layer  of  mucosa 
Circular    folds    (O.  T.  valvulae    con- 

Intestinal  villi 
Intestinal    glands    (O.   T.    crypts    of 

Solitary  lymph-nodules 
Aggregated  lymph-nodules    of    Peyer 

(O.  T.  Peyer's  patches) 

Intestinal  juice 
Duo  denum 
Superior  part 
Descending  part 
Inferior  part 

Horizontal  part 

Ascending  part 
Superior  duodenal  flexure 
Inferior  duodenal  flexure 
Duodenojejunal  flexure 
Suspensory  muscle  of  duodenum   (O. 

T.  muscle  of  Treitz) 
Longitudinal  fold  of  duodenum 
Duodenal  papilla 
Duodenal  glands  of  Brunner 
Mesenterial  small  intestine 

Empty  intestine  (O.  T.  jejunum) 
Twisted  intestine  (O.  T.  ileum) 

Large  or  thick  intestine 

B  lind     intestine 

Valve  of  the  colon    (O.  T.  ileocaecal 
Superior  lip 
Inferior  lip 
Frenula  of  valve  of  colon 

Vermiform     process,    or    ap- 

Valve  of  the  vermiform  process 

Aggregated  nodules  of  the  vermiform 

Colon,  or  great  gut 

Ascending  colon 

Right  colic  flexure 

Transverse  colon 

Left  colic  flexure 

Descending  colon 

Sigmoid  colon 

Semilunar  folds  of  colon 

Sacculations  of  colon 

Serous  coat 

Epiploic  (fatty)  appendages 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Tunica  muscularis 
Taeniae  coli 

Taenia  mesocolica 

Taenia  omentalis 

Taenia  libera 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
Gl.  intestinales  [Lieberkuehni] 
Noduli  lymphatici  solitarii 

Intestinum  rectxxm 

Flexura  sacralis 
Flexura  perinealis 
Ampulla  recti 
Tunica  muscularis 
M.  sphincter  ani  internus 
M.  rectococcygeus 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Lam.  m.  mucosae 

Gl.  intestinales  [Lieberkuehni] 
Noduli  lymphatici 
Plicae  transversales  recti 

Pars   analis  recti 
Columnae  rectales  [Morgagnii] 
Sinus  rectales 
Annulus  haemorrhoidalis 


Caput    pancreatis 

Processus  uncinatus  [Pancreas  Wins- 

Incisura  pancreatis 
Corpus  pancreatis 

Facies  anterior 

Facies  posterior 

Facies  inferior 

Margo  superior 

Margo  anterior 

Margo  posterior 
Tuber  omentale 

Cauda  pancreatis 

Ductus  pancreaticus  [Wirsungi] 

Ductus  pancreaticus  accessorius 

(Pancreas  accessorium) 
Succus  pancreaticus 


Facies  superior 
Facies  posterior 
Facies  inferior 
Margo  anterior 
Incisura  umbilicalis 
Fossae  sagittales  dextrae 

Fossa  vesicae  felleae 

Fossa  venae  cavae 
Fossa  sagittalis  sinistra 

Fossa  venae  umbilicalis 

Fossa  ductus  venosi 
Tunica  serosa 
Lig.  teres  hepatis 
Lig.  venosum  [Arantii] 
Porta  hepatis 
Lobus  hepatis  dexter 
Lobus  quadratus 
Lobus  caudatus  [Spigelii] 

Processus  papillaris 

Processus  caudatus 
Lobus  hepatis  sinister 
(Appendix  fibrosus  hepatis) 
Impressio  cardiaca 
Tuber  omentale 
Impressio  oesophagea 
Impressio  gastrica 
Impressio  duodenalis 
Impressio  colica 
Impressio  renalis 
Impressio  suprarenalis 
Lobuli  hepatis 
Capsula  fibrosa  [Glissoni] 
Rami  arteriosi  interlobulares 
Venae  interlobulares 
Venae  centrales 



Muscular  coat 
Bands  of  the  colon 

Mesocolic  band 

Omental  band 

Free  band 
Submucous  coat 
Mucous  coat 

Muscular  layer  of  mucosa 
Intestinal  glands  of  Lieberkuehn 
Solitary  lymph-nodules 

Rectum,  or  straight  gut 

Sacral  flexure 

Perineal  flexure 

Ampulla  of  rectum 

Muscular  layer 

Internal  sphincter  muscle  of  anus 

Rectococcygeus  muscle 

Submucous  coat 

Mucous  membrane 

Muscular  layer  of  mucosa 
Intestinal  glands  of  Lieberkuehn 

Lymphatic  nodules 

Transverse   folds   of  rectum    (O.    T. 
valves  of  Houston) 

Anal    part    of    rectum 

Rectal  columns  of  Morgagni 

Rectal  sinuses 

Hemorrhoidal  ring 


Head  of  pancreas 
Uncinate  process 

Notch  of  pancreas 
Body  of  pancreas 

Anterior  surface 

Posterior  surface 

Inferior  surface 

Superior  margin 

Anterior  margin 

Posterior  margin 
Omental  tuber 

Tail  of  pancreas 
Pancreatic  duct  of  Wirsung 
Accessory  pancreatic  duct  of  Santorini 

Accessory  pancreas 
Pancreatic  juice 


Superior  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Inferior  surface 
Anterior  margin 
Umbilical  notch 
Right  sagittal  fossae 

Fossa  for  gall-bladder 

Fossa  for  vena  cava 
Left  sagittal  fossa 

Fossa  for  umbilical  vein 

Fossa  for  venous  duct 
Serous  coat 

Round  ligament  of  liver 
Venous  ligament  of  Arantius 
Porta,  or  door  of  liver 
Right  lobe  of  liver 
Quadrate  lobe 
Caudate  lobe  of  Spigelius 

Papillary  process 

Caudate  process 
Left  lobe  of  liver 
Fibrous  appendix  of  liver 
Cardiac  impression 
Omental  tuber 
Oesophageal  impression 
Gastric  impression 
Duodenal  impression 
Colic  impression 
Renal  impression 
Suprarenal  impression 
Lobules  of  liver 
Fibrous  capsule  of  Glisson 
Interlobular  arteries 
Interlobular  veins 
Central  veins 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ductus  biliferi 

Ductus  interlobulares 

Ductus  hepaticus 

Vasa  aberrantia  hepatis 

Fel  [Bilis] 

Vesica   fellea 

Fundus  vesicae  felleae 

Corpus  vesicae  felleae 

Collum  vesicae  felleae 

Ductus  cysticus 

Tunica  serosa  vesicae  felleae 

Tunica  muscularis  vesicae  felleae 

Tunica  mucosa  vesicae  felleae 

Plicae  tun.  mucosae  v.  felleae 
Valvula  spiralis  [Heisteri] 
Ductus  choledochus 
Gl.  mucosae  biliosae 


Facies  diaphragmatica 

Facies  renalis 

Facies  gastrica 

Extremitas  superior 

Extremitas  inferior 

Margo  posterior 

Margo  anterior 

Hilus  lienis 

Tunica  serosa 

Tunica  albuginea 

Trabeculae  lienis 

Pulpa  lienis 

Rami  lienales  [arteriae  lienalis] 

Noduli  lymphatici  lienales  [Malpighii] 

(Lien  accessorms) 

Apparatus  respiratorius 

Cavum  nasi 

Septum  nasi 

Septum  cartilagineum 

Septum  membranaceum 
Vestibulum  nasi 
Limen  nasi 
Sulcus  olfactorius 
(Concha  nasalis  suprema  [Santorini]) 

Concha  nasalis  superior 

Meatus  nasi 

Meatus  nasi  superior 
Meatus  nasi  medius 

Atrium  meatus  medii 
Meatus  nasi  inferior 
Meatus  nasi  communis 
Meatus  nasopharyngeus 

Regio  respiratoria 

Regio  olfactoria 

Gl.  olfactoriae 

Sinus  paranasales 

Sinus  maxillaris  [Highmori] 

Concha  nasalis  media 

Concha  nasalis  inferior 

Membrana  mucosa  nasi 
Plexus  cavernosi  concharum 
Agger  nasi 
Recessus  sphenoethmoidalis 

Sinus  sphenoidalis 

Sinus  frontalis 
Cellulae  ethmoidales 
Bulla  ethmoidalis 
Infundibulum  ethmoidale 

Hiatus  semilunaris 
Gl.  nasales 



Bile-ducts  (O.  T.  bile  canaliculi) 

Interlobular  ducts 

Hepatic  duct 

Aberrant  vessels  of  liver 


Gall   bladder 

Fundus  of  gall  bladder 

Body  of  gall  bladder 

Neck  of  gall  bladder 

Cystic  duct 

Serous  coat  of  gall  bladder 

Muscular  coat  of  gall  bladder 

Mucous  coat  of  gall  bladder 

Folds  of  mucous  coat  of  gall  bladder 
Spiral  valve  of  Heister 
Common  bile  duct 
Glands  of  biliary  mucosa 


Diaphragmatic  surface 

Renal  surface 

Gastric  surface 

Superior  extremity 

Inferior  extremity 

Posterior  margin 

Anterior  margin 

Hilus  of  the  spleen 

Serous  coat 

Albugineous  coat 

Trabeculae  ("cords")  of  spleen 

Spleen  pulp 

Splenic  rami  of  splenic  artery 

Arterial  tufts 
Splenic    lymph-nodules    (O.    T.    Mal- 

pighian  corpuscles) 
Accessory  spleen 

Respiratory   system 

Nasal  cavity 

Anterior  apertures 

Posterior  apertures 

Nasal  septum 

Cartilaginous  septum 
Membranous  septum 

Vestibule  of  nose 

Threshold  of  nose 

Olfactory  sulcus 

Highest  nasal  concha   (O.   T.   upper- 
most turbinated  bone) 

Superior  nasal  concha  (O.  T.  superior 
turbinated  bone) 

Middle  nasal  concha   (O.   T.   middle 
turbinated  bone) 

Inferior  nasal  concha  (O.  T.  inferior 
turbinated  bone) 

Mucous  membrane  of  nose 

Cavernous   layer  of  conchae 

Agger  ("elevation")  of  nose 

Spheno-ethmoidal  recess 

Meatuses  of  the  nose 

Superior  meatus 

Middle  meatus 

"  Entrance-hall"  of  middle  meatus 

Inferior  meatus 

Common  meatus 

Nasopharyngeal  meatus 
Respiratory  region 
Olfactory  region 
Olfactory  glands 
Sinuses  near  nose 

Maxillary  sinus   (O.  T.  antrum  of 

Sphenoidal  sinus 

Frontal  sinus 
Ethmoidal  cells 
Ethmoidal  bulla  ("bubble") 
Ethmoidal    infundibulum    ("  funnel") 

Semilunar  opening 
Nasal  glands 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Nasus  externus 

Basis  nasi 

Radix  nasi 

DoKsum  nasi 

Margo  nasi 

Apex  nasi 

Ala  nasi 

Septum  mobile  nasi 

Cartilagines   nasi 

Cartilago  septi  nasi 

Processus    sphenoidalis    septi    car- 
Cartilago  nasi  lateralis 
Cartilago  alaris  major 

Crus  mediale 

Crus  laterale 
Cartilagines  alares  minores 
Cartilagines  sesamoideae  nasi 
Organon  vomeronasal  [Jacobsoni] 
Cartilago  vomeronasalis  [Jacobsoni] 
(Ductus  incisivus) 


Prominentia  laryngea 

Cartilagines   laryngis 

Cartilago  thyreoidea 
Lamina  [dextra  et  sinistra] 
Incisura  thyreoidea  superior 
Incisura  thyreoidea  inferior 
Tuberculum  thyreoideum  superius 
Tuberculum  thyreoideum  inferius 
(Linea  obliqua) 
Cornu  superius 
Cornu  inferius 
(Foramen  thyreoideum) 

Lig.  hyothyreoideum  laterale 

Cartilago  triticea 

Lig.  hyothyreoideum  medium 

Membrana  hyothyreoidea 

Cartilago  cricoidea 

Arcus  [cartilaginis  cricoideae] 

Lamina  [cartilaginis  cricoideae] 
Facies  articularis  arytaenoidea 
Facies  articularis  thyreoidea 
Articulatio  cricothyreoidea 
Capsula  articularis  cricothyreoidea 
Ligg.  ceratocricoidea  lateralia 
Lig.  ceratocricoideum  anterius 
Ligg.  ceratocricoidea  posteriora 
Lig.  cricothyreoideum  [medium] 

Lig.  cricotracheale 
Cartilago  arytaenoidea 

Facies  articularis 

Basis  [cartilaginis  arytaenoideae] 

Crista  arcuata 


Fovea  oblonga 

Fovea  triangularis 

Apex  [cartilaginis  arytaenoideae] 

Processus  vocalis 

Processus  muscularis 
Cartilago  corniculata  [Santorini] 

Synchondrosis  arycorniculata 
Articulatio  cricoarytaenoidea 
Lig.  cricopharyngeum 
Lig.  corniculopharyngeum 

Lig.  ventriculare 

Lig.  vocale 

(Cartilago  sesamoidea) 
Capsula  articularis  cricoarytaenoidea 
Lig.  cricoarytaenoideum  posterius 

Petiolus  epiglottidis 

Tuberculum  epiglotticum 

Cartilago  epiglottica 
Lig.  thyreoepiglotticum 



External  nose 

Base  of  nose 

Root  of  nose 

Dorsum  of  nose 

Margin  of  nose 

Tip  of  nose 

Wing  of  nose 

Movable  septum  of  nose 

Nasal   cartilages 

Cartilage  of  nasal  septum 

Sphenoidal  process  of  cartilaginous 
Lateral  nasal  cartilage 
Greater  alar  cartilage 

Medial  crus 

Lateral  crus 
Lesser  alar  cartilages 
Sesamoid  cartilages  of  nose 
Vomeronasal  organ  of  Jacobson 
Vomeronasal  cartilage  of  Jacobson 
Incisor  canaliculus 


Laryngeal  prominence  (O.  T.  Adam's 

apple,  or  pomum  Adami) 
Laryngeal   cartilages 
Thyreoid  cartilage 

Right  and  left  plates 

Superior  thyreoid  notch 

Inferior  thyreoid  notch 

Superior  thyreoid  tubercle 

Inferior  thyreoid  tubercle 

Oblique  line 

Superior  horn 

Inferior  horn 

Thyreoid  foramen 
Lateral  hyothyreoid  ligament 
Triticeous  ("wheat-like")  cartilage 
Middle  hyothyreoid  ligament 
Hyothyreoid  membrane  (O.  T.   thyro- 
hyoid membrane) 
Cricoid  cartilage 

Arch  of  cricoid  cartilage 

Lamina  of  cricoid  cartilage 

Arytaenoid  articular  surface 

Thyreoid  articular  surface 
Cricothyreoid  articulation 
Capsule  of  cricothyreoid  joint 
Lateral  ceratocricoid  ligaments 
Anterior  ceratocricoid  ligaments 
Posterior  ceratocricoid  ligaments 
Middle  cricothyreoid  ligament  (O.  T. 

middle  portion  of  cricothyroid  mem- 
Cricotracheal  ligament 
Arytaenoid  cartilage 

Articular  surface 

Base  of  arytaenoid  cartilage 

Arched  ridge 

Nodule  or  hillock 

Oblong  depression 

Triangular  depression 

Tip  or  apex  of  arytaenoid  cartilage 

Vocal  process 

Muscular  process  . 
Corniculate  cartilage  (O.  T.  cartilage 

of  Santorini) 
Arycorniculate  synchondrosis 
Cricoarytaenoid  joint 
Cricopharyngeal  ligament 
Corniculopharyngeal  ligament  (O.  T. 

Lig.  jugale) 
Ventricular  ligament  (O.  T.  superior 

thyro-arytenoid  ligament) 
Vocal  ligament  (O.  T.  inferior  thyro- 
arytenoid ligament) 

Sesamoid  cartilage 
Capsule  of  crico-arytaenoid  joint 
Posterior  crico-arytaenoid  ligament 

Stem  of  epiglottis 

Epiglottic  tubercle  (O.  T.  cushion  of 

Epiglottic  cartilage 
Thyreo-epiglottic     ligament     (O.     T. 

thyro-epiglottidean  ligament) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Lig.  hyoepiglotticum 

Cartilage  cuneiformis  [Wrisbergi] 
Tuberculum  cuneiforme  [Wrisbergi] 
Tuberculum  corniculatum  [Santorini] 

Musculi  laryngis 
M.  aryepiglotticus 

M.  cricothyreoideus 
Pars  recta 

Pars  obliqua 

M.  cricoarytaenoideus  posterior 

(M.  ceratocricoideus) 

M.  cricoarytaenoideus  lateralis 

M.  ventricularis 

M.  vocalis 

M.  thyreoepiglotticus 

M.  thyreoarytaenoideus  [externus] 
M.  arytaenoideus  obliquus 
M.  arytaenoideus  transversus 

Cavum  larjnigis 

Vallecula  epiglottica 
Aditus  laryngis 
Vestibulum  laryngis 
Rima  vestibuli 
Labium  vocale 
Rima  glottidis 

Pars  intermembranacea 

Pars  intercartilaginea 
Ventriculus  laryngis  [Morgagnii] 

Appendix  ventriculi  laryngis 
Tunica  mucosa  laryngis 

Membrana  elastica  laryngis 
Conus  elasticus 

Plica  glossoepiglottica  mediana 

Plica  glossoepiglottica  lateralis 

Plica  aryepiglottica 
Plica  nervi  laryngei 
Plica  ventricularis    . 

Plica  vocalis 

Macula  flava 
Aditus  glottidis  inferior 
Aditus  glottidis  superior 
Incisura  interarytaenoidea 
Gl.  laryngeae 

Gl.  laryngeae  anteriores 

Gl.  laryngeae  mediae 

Gl.  laryngeae  posteriores 
Noduli  lymphatic!  laryngei 

Trachea  et  bronchi 

Cartilagines  tracheales 
Ligg.  annularia  [trachealia] 
Paries  membranacea 
Gl.  tracheales 
Bifurcatio  tracheae 
Bronchus  [dexter  et  sinister] 
Rami  bronchiales 

Ramus  bronchialis  eparterialis 

Rami  bronchiales  hyparteriales 
Tunica  muscularis 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Gl.  tracheales 

Gl.  bronchiales 


Basis  pulmonis 
Apex  pulmonis 
Sulcus  subclavius 



Hyo-epiglottic  ligament   (O.   T.   hyo- 

epiglottidean  ligament) 
Cuneiform  cartilage 
Cuneiform  tubercle 
Corniculate  tubercle  of  Santorini 

Muscles  of  larynx 

Ary epiglottic  muscle   (O.  T.  aryteno- 
epiglottidean  muscle) 

Cricothyreoid  muscle 

Straight    part     (O.T.     anterior    or 

oblique  part) 
Oblique   part    (O.    T.    posterior   or 
horizontal  part) 

Posterior  crico-arytaenoid  muscle 

Ceratocricoid  muscle 

Lateral  crico-arytaenoid  muscle 

Ventricular  muscle 

Vocal  muscle   (O.   T.   internal  thyro- 
arytenoid muscle) 

Thyreo-epiglottic  muscle  (O.  T.  thyro- 
epiglottidean  muscle) 

Thyreo-arytaenoid  muscle  (external) 

Oblique  arytaenoid  muscle 

Transverse  arytaenoid  muscle 

Cavity  of  larynx 

Epiglottic  vallecula 
Laryngeal  aperture 
Vestibule  of  larynx 
Slit  of  vestibule  (O.  T.  false  glottis) 
Vocal  lip 

Glottis  (O.  T.  glottis  vera)' 
Slit  of  glottis 
Intermembranous  part  (O.  T.  glot- 
tis vocalis) 
Intercartilaginous  part  (O.  T.  glottis 
Ventricle  of  larynx   (O.  T.   laryngeal 
Appendage    of   ventricle    of   larynx 
(O.  T.  laryngeal  pouch  or  sac") 
Mucous  coat  of  larynx 

Elastic  membrane  of  larynx 

Elastic    cone    (O.    T.    cricothyroid 
Median  glosso-epiglottic  fold   (O.   T. 

middle  glosso-epiglottidean  fold,  or 

fraenum  of  the  epiglottis) 
Lateral  glosso-epiglottic  fold   (O.   T. 

lateral  glosso-epiglottidean  folds) 
Ary-epiglottic  fold 
Fold  of  laryngeal  nerve 
Ventricular   fold    (O.    T.    false   vocal 

Vocal  fold  (O.  T.  true  vocal  cord) 

Yellow  spot 
Inferior  entrance  to  glottis 
Superior  entrance  to  glottis 
Interarytaenoid  notch 
Laryngeal  glands 

Anterior  laryngeal  glands 

Middle  laryngeal  glands 

Posterior  laryngeal  glands 
Lymph-nodules  of  larynx 

Trachea  and  bronchi 

Tracheal  cartilages 
Annular  ligaments 
Membranous  wall 
Tracheal  glands 
Bifurcation  of  trachea 
Right  and  left  bronchus 
Bronchial  rami 

Eparterial  bronchial  ramus 

Hyparterial  bronchial  ramus 
Muscular  coat 
Submucous  layer 
Mucous  coat 

Tracheal  glands 

Bronchial  glands 


Base  of  lung 
Apex  of  lung 
Subclavian  sulcus 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Fades  costalis 

Facies  mediastinalis 

Facies  diaphragmatica 

Margo  anterior 

Margo  inferior 

Hilus  pulmonis 

Radix  pulmonis 

Incisura  cardiaca 

Lingula  pulmonis 

Lobus  superior 

Lobus  medius 

Lobus  inferior 

Incisura  interlobaris 

Lobuli  pulmonum 

Rami  bronchiales 


Bronchioli  respiratorii 

Ductuli  alveolares 

Alveoli  pulmonum 

Lymphoglandulae  bronchiales 

Noduli  lymphatic!  bronchiales 

Lymphoglandulae  pulmonales 

Cavum  thoracis 

Fascia  endothoracica 
Cavum  pleurae 

Cupula  pleurae 

Pleura  pulmonalis 

Pleura  parietalis 

Pleura  mediastinalis 
Laminae  mediastinales 
Pleura  pericardiaca 

Pleura  costalis 

Pleura  diaphragmatica 
Sinus  pleurae 

Sinus  phrenicocostalis 

Sinus  costomediastinalis 
Lig.  pulmonale 
Plicae  adiposae 
Villi  pleurales 
Septum  mediastinale 

Cavum  mediastinale  anterius 

Cavum  mediastinale  posterius 

Ql.  thyreoidea 

Isthmus  gl.  thyreoideae 
(Lobus  pyramidalis) 
Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 
Lobuli  gl.  thyreoideae 
Stroma  gl.  thyreoideae 
(Gl.  thyreoideae  accessoriae) 

(Gl.  thyreoidea  accessoria  supra- 

Glomus  caroticum 

Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 
Tractus  centralis 
Lobuli  thymi 

Apparatus  urogenitalis 

Organa  uropoetica 


Margo  lateralis 
Margo  medialis 

Hilus  renalis 

Sinus  renalis 
Facies  anterior 
Facies  posterior 
Extremitas  superior 

Extremitas  inferior 
(Impressio  muscularis) 
(Impressio  hepatica) 
(Impressio  gastrica) 
Capsula  adiposa 
Tunica  fibrosa 
Tunica  muscularis 
Tubuli  renales 

Tubuli  renales  contorti 



Costal  surface 

Mediastinal  surface 

Diaphragmatic  surface 

Anterior  margin 

Inferior  margin 

Hilus  of  lung 

Root  of  lung 

Cardiac  notch 

Lingula,  or  little  tongue,  of  lung 

Upper  lobe 

Middle  lobe 

Inferior  lobe 

Interlobar  incisure 

Pulmonary  lobules 

Bronchial  rami 


Respiratory  bronchioles 

Alveolar  ductules 

Pulmonary  alveoli 

Bronchial  lymph  glands 

Bronchial  lymph-nodules 

Pulmonary  lymph  glands 

Thoracic  cavity 

Endothoracic  fascia 
Pleural    cavity 

Dome  or  cupola  of  pleura 

Pulmonary  pleura 

Parietal  pleura 

Mediastinal  pleura 
Mediastinal  layers 
Pericardiac  pleura 

Costal  pleura 

Diaphragmatic  pleura 
Sinuses  of  the  pleura 

Phrenicocostal  sinus 

Costomediastinal  sinus 
Pulmonary  ligament 
Adipose  folds 
Pleural  villi 
Mediastinal  septum 

Anterior  mediastinal  cavity 

Posterior  mediastinal  cavity 

Thyreoid  gland . 

Isthmus  of  thyreoid 
Pyramidal  lobe 
Right  and  left  lobes 
Lobules  of  gland 
Stroma  of  gland 
Accessory  thyreoid  glands 

Suprahyoid  accessory  thyreoid  gland 

Carotid  skein  (O.  T.  intercarotid 


Right  and  left  lobe 
Central  tract 
Lobules  of  thymus 

Urogenital  system 

Uropoietic  organs 

Kidney  • 

Lateral  margin 
Medial  margin 

Renal  hilus 

Renal  sinus 
Anterior  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Superior  extremity 

Inferior  extremity 
Muscular  impression 
Hepatic  impression 
Gastric  impression 
Adipose  capsule 
Fibrous  coat 
Muscular  coat 
Renal  tubules 

Convoluted  renal  tubules 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Tubuli  renales  recti 
Substantia  corticalis 
Substantia  medullaris 
Lobi  renales 

Pyramides  renales  [Malpighii] 
Basis  pyramidis 
Papillae  renales 
Area  cribrosa 
Foramina  papillaria 
Columnae  renales  [Bertini] 
Lobuli  corticales 

Pars  radiata  [Processus  Ferreini] 

Pars  convoluta 
Corpuscula  renis  [Malpighii] 


Capsula  glomeruli 
Pelvis  renalis 
Calyces  renales 

Calyces  renales  majores 

Calyces  renales  minores 
Gl.  pelvis  renalis 

Arteriae  renis 

Aa.  interlobares  renis 
Arteriae  arciformes 
Arteriae  interlobulares 
Vas  afferens 
Vas  efferens 
Rami  capsulares 
Arteriolae  rectae 
x\a.  nutriciae  pelvis  renalis 

Venae  renis 
Vv.  interlobares 
Venae  arciformes 
Venae  interlobulares 
Venulae  rectae 
Venae  stellatae 


Pars  abdominalis 

Pars  pelvina 
Tunica  adventitia 
Tunica  njuscularis 

Stratum  externum 

Stratum  medium 

Stratum  internum 
Tunica  mucosa 
Gl.  mucosae  ureteris 

Vesica  urinaria 

Vertex  vesicae 

Corpus  vesicae 

Fundus  vesicae 

Lig.  umbilicale  medium 


Tunica  serosa 

Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  externum 

Stratum  medium 

Stratum  internum 
M.  pubovesicalis 
M.  rectovesicalis 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 
Gl.  vesicales 

Noduli  lymphatici  vesicales 
Trigonum  vesicae  [Lieutaudi] 

Uvula  vesicae 

Plica  ureterica 

Orificium  ureteris 
Orificium  urethrae  internum 
Annulus  urethralis 

Glandula  suprarenalis 

Substantia  corticalis 
Substantia  mejdullaris 
Hilus  gl.  suprarenalis 
Facies  anterior 
Facies  posterior 
Basis  gl.  suprarenalis 
Apex  suprarenalis  [gl.  dextrae] 
Margo  superior 
Margo  medialis 



Straight  renal  tubules 
Cortical  substance 
Medullary  substance 
Renal  lobes  (O.  T.  reniculi) 
Renal  pyramids 
Base  of  pyramid 
Renal  papillae 
Cribriform  area 
Papillary  foramina 
Renal  columns 
Cortical  lobules 

Radiate    part    (O.    T.    pyramid    of 

Convoluted  part  (O.  T.  labyrinth) 
Renal  corpuscles   (O.  T.   Malpighian 


Capsule  of  glomerulus 
Renal    pelvis 
Renal  calyces 

Greater  renal  calyces 

Smaller  renal  calyces 
Glands  of  renal  pelvis 

Renal  arteries 

Interlobar  arteries  of  kidney 

Arciform  arteries  or  renal  arches 
Interlobular  arteries 

Afferent  vessel 

Efferent  vessel 
Capsular  branches 
Straight  arterioles 
Nutrient  arteries  of  renal  pelvis 

Renal  veins 

Interlobar  veins 
Arciform  veins 
Interlobular  veins 
Straight  venules 
Stellate  veins 


Abdominal  part 

Pelvic  part 
Adventitious  coat 
Muscular  coat 

External  layer 

Middle  layer 

Internal  layer 
Mucous  coat 
Mucous  glands  of  ureter 

Urinary  bladder 

Apex  of  bladder 

Body  of  bladder 

Fundus  of  bladder 

Middle  umbilical  ligament 


Serous  coat 

Muscular  coat 

External  layer 

Middle  layer 

Internal  layer 
Pubovesical  muscle 
Rectovesical  muscle 
Submucous  layer 
Mucous  coat 
Vesical  glands 
Vesical  lymph-nodules 
Lieutaud's  trigone  of  the  bladder 

Vesical  uvula 

Ureteral  fold 

Orifice  of  ureter 
Internal  orifice  of  ureter 
Urethral  ring 

Suprarenal  gland 

Cortical  substance 
Medullary  substance 
Hilus  of  suprarenal  gland 
Anterior  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Base  of  suprarenal  gland 
Apex  of  right  suprarenal 
Superior  margin 
Medial  margin 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Vena  centralis 

(Gl.  suprarenales  accessoriae) 

Organa  genitalia 

Organa  genitalia  virilia 


Extremitas  superior 

Extremitas  inferior 

Facies  lateralis 

Facies  medialis 

Margo  anterior 

Margo  posterior 

Tunica  albuginea 

Mediastinum  testis  [Corpus  Highmori] 

Septula  testis 

Lobuli  testis 

Parenchyma  testis 

Tubuli  seminiferi  contort! 

Tubuli  seminiferi  recti 

Tunica  propria 
Rete  testis  [Halleri] 
Ductuli  efferentes  testis 
Sperma  [Semen] 
Caput  epididymidis 
Corpus  epididymidis 
Cauda  epididymidis 
Lobuli  epididymidis 
Ductus  epididymidis 
Ductuli  aberrantes 
(Ductulus  aberrans  superior) 
Appendices  testis 

Appendix  testis  [Morgagnii] 

(Appendix  epididymis) 

Ductus   deferens 

Ampulla  ductus  deferentis 
Diverticula  ampullae 
Tunica  adventitia 

Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  externum 

Stratum  medium 

Stratum  internum 
Tunica  mucosa 
Ductus  ejaculatorius 

Vesicula  seminalis 

Corpus  vesiculae  seminalis 
Tunica  adventitia 
Tunica  muscularis 
Tunica  mucosa 
Ductus  excretorius 

Funiculus  spermaticus  et 
tiinicae  testis  et  funiculi  spermatid 

(Rudimentum  processus  vaginalis) 
Tunica  vaginalis  propria  testis 

Lamina  parietalis 

Lamina  visceralis 
Lig.  epididymidis  superius 
Lig.  epididymidis  inferius 
Sinus  epididymidis 
Tunica  vaginalis  communis  [testis  et 

funiculi  spermatici] 
M.  cremaster 

Fascia  cremasterica  [Cooperi] 
Descensus  testis 
Guhernaculum  testis  [Hunteri] 


Basis  prostatae 
Apex  prostatae 
Facies  anterior 
Facies  posterior 
Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 
Isthmus  prostatae 
(Lobus  medius) 
Corpus  glandulare 
Ductus  prostatic! 
Succus  prostaticus 
M.  prostaticus 



Central  vein 

Accessory  suprarenal  glands 

Genital  organs 
Male  genital  organs 


Superior  extremity 

Inferior  extremity 

Lateral  surface 

Medial  surface 

Anterior  margin 

Posterior  margin 

Albugineous  coat 

Mediastinum  of  testicle 

Septules  of  testicle 

Lobules  of  testicle 


Convoluted  seminiferous  tubules 

Straight  seminiferous  tubules 

Proper  coat 
Efferent  ductules 
Sperm  or  semen 
Head  of  epididymis 
Body  of  epididymis 
Tail  of  epididymis 
Lobules  of  epididymis 
Ducts  of  epididymis 
Aberrant  ductules 
Superior  aberrant  ductule 
Appendages  of  the  testicle 

Morgagni's  appendage  of  testicle  (O. 
T.  hydatid  of  Morgagni) 

Appendage  of  epididymis 
Paradidymis     (O.   T.   organ  of 

Deferent    duct    (O.  T.  vas  def- 
,    erens) 

Ampulla  of  deferent  duct 
Diverticula  of  ampulla 

Adventitious  coat 

Muscular  coat 

External  layer 

Middle  layer 

Internal  layer 
Mucous  coat 
Ejaculatory  duct 

Seminal  vesicles 

Body  of  seminal  vesicles 
Adventitious  coat 
Muscular  coat 
Mucous  coat 
Excretory  duct 

Spermatic  cord  and  coats  of  the 
testicle  and  cord 

Rudiment  of  vaginal  process 

Proper  sheath  of  testicle 
Parietal  layer 
Visceral  layer 

Superior  ligament  of  epididymis 

Inferior  ligament  of  epididymis 

Sinus  of  epididymis 

Common  sheath  of  testicle  and  sper- 
matic cord 

Cremasteric  muscle 

Cremasteric  fascia 

Descent  of  the  testicle 

GuherncLculum  {^'pilot^^)  of  testicle 


Base  of  prostate 
Apex  of  prostate 
Anterior  surface 
Posterior  surface 
Right  and  left  lobe 
Isthmus  of  prostate 

Middle  lobe 
Glandular  body 
Prostatic  ducts 
Prostatic  fluid 
Prostatic  muscle 

f6  Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Glandula  bulbourethralis  [Cowperi] 

Corpus  gl.  bulbourethralis 
Ductus  excretorius 

Partes  genitales  externae 


Radix  penis 
Corpus  penis 
Crus  penis 
Dorsum  penis 
Facies  urethralis 
Glans  penis 
Corona  glandis 
Septum  glandis 
Collum  glandis 
Frenulum  praeputii 
Raphe  penis 

Corpus  cavernosum  penis 
Corpus  cavernosum  urethrae 
Bulbus  urethrae 

Hemisphaeria  bulbi  urethrae 
Septum  bulbi  urethrae 
Tunica  albuginea  corporum  caverno- 

Septum  penis 

Trabeculae  corporum  cavernosorum 
Cavernae  corporum  cavernosorum 
Arteriae  heHcinae 
Venae  cavernosae 
Lig.  suspensorium  penis 
Fascia  penis 
Gl.  praeputiales 
Smegma  praeputii 

Urethra  virilis 

Pars   prostatica 
Crista  urethralis 
Colliculus  seminahs 
Utriculus  prostaticus 
Pars   membranacea 
Pars   cavernosa 

Fossa  navicularis  urethrae  [Morgagnii] 
(Valvula  fossae  navicularis) 
Orificium  urethrae  externum 
Lacunae  urethrales  [Morgagnii] 
GL  urethrales  [Littrei] 


Raphe  scroti 
Septum  scroti 
Tunica  dartos 

Organa  genitalia  muliebria 


Hilus  ovarii 
Facies  medialis 
Facies  lateraUs 
Margo  Hber 
Margo  mesovaricus 
Extremitas  tubaria 
Extremitas  uterina 
Stroma  ovarii 
FoUicuH  oophori  primarii 
•  Folliculi  oophori  vesiculosi  [Graafi] 

Theca  folliculi 

Tunica  externa 

Tunica  interna 
Liquor  folliculi 
Stratum  granulosum 
Cumulus  oophorus 

Corpus  luteum 
Corpus  albicans 
Lig.  ovarii  proprium 

Tuba  uterina  [Falloppii] 

Ostium  abdominale  tubae  uterinae 
Infundibulum  tubae  uterinae 
Fimbriae  tubae 

Fimbria  ovarica 
Ampulla  tubae  uterinae 
Isthmus  tubae  uterinae 



Bulbo-urethral  gland  (O.  T.  Cow- 
per's  gland) 

Body  of  gland 
Excretory  duct 

Parts   of   external   genitals 


Root  of  penis 

Body  of  penis 

Crus  of  penis 

Dorsum  of  penis 

Urethral  surface 

Glans  ("acorn")  of  penis 

Corona  of  glans 

Septum  of  glans 

Neck  of  glans 

Frenulum  of  prepuce 
Raphe  of  penis 
Cavernous  body  of  penis 
Cavernous  body  of  urethra 
Bulb  of  urethra 

Hemispheres  of  bulb  of  urethra 

Septum  of  bulb  of  urethra 
Albugineous  coat  of  cavernous  bodies 

Septum  of  penis 

Trabeculae  of  cavernous  bodies 

Caverns  of  cavernous  bodies 

Spiral  arteries 

Cavernous  veins 

Suspensory  ligament  of  penis 

Fascia  of  penis 

Preputial  glands 

Smegma  of  prepuce 

Male  urethra 

Prostatic     part 
Urethral  crest 
Seminal  hillock 
Prostatic  utricle 
Membranous     part 
C  avernous     part 

Navicular  fossa  of  urethra 
Valve  of  navicular  fossa 
External  urethral  orifice 
Urethral  lacunae  of  Morgagni 
Urethral  glands  of  Littre 


Raphe  of  scrotum 
Septum  of  scrotum 
Dartos  ("flayed")  coat 

Female  genital  organs 


Hilus  of  ovary 

Medial  surface 

Lateral  surface 

Free  margin 

Mesovarian  margin 

Tubal  extremity 

Uterine  extremity 

Stroma  of  ovary 

Primary  ovarian  follicles 

Vesicular    ovarian    follicles     (O.     T. 

Graafian  follicles) 
Theca  of  follicle 

External  coat 

Internal  coat 
Liquor  of  follicle 
Granular  layer 

Ovarian   mound    (O.   T.    discus    pro- 

Corpus  luteum:  "yellow  body" 
Corpus  albicans:  "white  body" 
Proper  ligament  of  ovary 

Uterine  tube  (0.  T.  Fallopian  tube) 

Abdominal  mouth  of  uterine  tube 
Infundibulum  of  uterine  tube 
Fimbriae  of  tube 

Ovarian  fimb"ria 
Ampulla  of  uterine  tube 
Isthmus  of  uterine  tube 


Pars  uterina 
Ostium  uterinum  tubae 
Tunica  serosa 
Tunica  adventitia 
Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  longitudinale 

Stratum  circulare 
Tela  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 
Plicae  tubariae 

Plicae  ampullares 

Plicae  isthmicae 


Corpus  uteri 

Fundus  uteri 

Margo  lateralis 

Facies  vesicalis 

Facies  intestinalis 

Cavum  uteri 

Orificium  internum  uteri 

Cervix  [uteri] 

Portio  supravaginalis  [cervicis] 
Portio  vaginalis  [cervicis] 
Orificium  externum  uteri 

Labium  anterius 

Labium  posterius 
Canalis  cervicis  uteri 
Plicae  palmatae 
Gl.  cervicales  [uteri] 

Tunica  serosa  [Perimetrium] 
Tunica  muscularis 
Tunica  muscularis  cervicis 
Tunica  mucosa 

Gl.  uterinae 
M.  rectouterinus 
Lig.  teres  uteri 
(Processus  vaginalis  peritonaei) 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Fornix  vaginae 

Paries  anterior 

Paries  posterior 

Hymen  [femininus] 

Carunculae  hymenales 

Tunica  muscularis 

Tunica  mucosa 

Noduli  lymphatic!  vaginales 

Rugae  vaginales 

Columnae  rugarum 

Columna  rugarum  posterior 
Columna  rugarum  anterior 
Carina  urethralis  [vaginae] 


Ductus  epoophori  longitudinalis  [Gart- 
Ductuli  transversi 
Appendices  vesiculosi  [Morgagnii] 

Partes  genitales  externae 

Pudendum  muliebre 

Labium  majus  pudendi 

Commissura  labiorum  anterior 

Commissura  labiorum  posterior 

Frenulum  labiorum  pudendi 

Rima  pudendi 

Fossa  navicularis  [vestibuli  vaginae] 

Labium  minus  pudendi 

Vestibulum  vaginae 

Bulbus  vestibuli 

Gl.  sebaceae 

Gl.  vestibulares  minores 

Orificium  vaginae 

GL  vestibularis  major  [Bartholini] 

Crus  clitoridis 
Corpus  clitoridis 



TJteriite  part 
Uterine  mouth  of  tube 
Serous  coat 
Adventitious  coat 
Muscular  coat 

Longitudinal  layer 

Circular  layer 
Submucous  tela 
Mucous  coat 
Tubal  folds 

Ampullar  folds 

Isthmian  folds 


Eody  of  uterus 
Fundus  of  uterus 
Lateral  margin 
Vesical  surface 
Intestinal  surface 
Cavity  of  uterus 

Internal  orifice  of  uterus   (O.  T.  in- 
ternal os) 
Neck  of  uterus 

Supravaginal  portion  of  cervix 
Vaginal  portion  of  cervix 
External     orifice     of    uterus     (O.  T. 
external  os) 
Anterior  lip 
Posterior  lip 
Canal  of  neck  of  uterus 
Palmate  folds 
Cervical  glands  of  uterus 
Serous  coat 
Muscular  coat 
Muscular  coat  of  neck 
Mucous  coat 

Uterine  glands 
Rectouterine  muscle 
Round  ligament  of  uterus' 
Vaginal  process  of  peritoneum  (O.  T. 
canal  of  Nuck) 

Vagina  ("sheath") 

Fornix  of  vagina 

Anterior  wall 

Posterior  wall 


Hymeneal  caruncles 

Muscular  coat 

Mucous  coat 

Vaginal  lymph-nodules 

Rugae  ("wrinkles")  of  vaginal  wall 

Columns  of  the  rugae 

Posterior  column 

Anterior  column 

Urethral  carina  ("keel")  of  vagina 

Epo-ophoron  (0.  T.  parovarium  or 
organ  of  Rosenmueller) 

Longitudinal     duct     of     epo-ophoron 
(O.  T.  Gartner's  duct) 

Transverse  ductules 
Vesicular    appendages    of    Morgagni 

(O.  T.  hydatids  of  Morgagni) 

External  genital  parts 

Vulva  ("wrapper") 

Greater  lip  of  vulva 

Anterior  labial  commissure 

Posterior  labial  commissure 

Frenulum  of  pudendal  labia 

Pudendal  slit 

Navicular  fossa  of  vestibule  of  vagina 

Lesser  lip  of  vulva 

Vestibule  of  vagina 

Vestibular  bulb 

Sebaceous  glands 

Lesser  vestibular  glands 

Orifice  of  vagina 

Larger  vestibular  gland  of  Bartholin 

Cms  of  clitoris 
Body  of  clitoris 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Glans  clitoridis 
Frenulum  clitoridis 
Praeputium  clitoridis 
Smegma  clitoridis 
Corpus  cavernosum  clitoridis 
Septum  corporum  cavernosorum 
Fascia  clitoridis 
Lig.  suspensorium  clitoridis 

Urethra  muliebris 

Orificium  urethrae  externum 
Corpus  spongiosum  urethrae 
Tunica  muscularis 

Stratum  circulare 

Stratum  longitudinale 
Tunica  submucosa 
Tunica  mucosa 

Gl.  urethrales 
Crista  urethralis 
(Ductus  paraurethrales) 
Termini   ontogenetici 
Membranae  deciduae 

Decidua  vera 

Decidua  capsularis 

Decidua  basalts 

Placenta  uterina 

Placenta  joetalis 
Funiculus  umbilicalis  $ 

Corpus  Wolffi 
Ductus  Wolffi 
Ductus  Muelleri 
Sinus  urogenitalis 


Raphe  perinei 
Musculi   perinei 
Diaphragma     pelvis 
M.  levator  ani 

Arcus    tendineus    m.    levatoris    ani 

M.  coccygeus  [vide  p.  40] 
M.  sphincter  ani  externus 

Lig.  anococcygeum 
Fascia  pelvis 

Fascia  endopelvina 

Fascia  diaphragmatis  pelvis  superior 

Arcus  tendineus  fasciae  pelvis 
Lig.  puboprostaticum  [pubovesical] 

Lig.  puboprostaticum  [pubovesicale] 

Fascia  diaphragmatis  pelvis  inferior 
Diaphragma   urogenitale 

M.  transversus  perinei  profundus 

M.  sphincter  urethrae  membranaceae 

Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogenitalis  su- 

Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogenitalis  in- 

Lig.  transversum  pelvis 

Fascia  prostatae 

Fascia  obturatoria 

Fossa  ischiorectahs 

M.  transversus  perinei  superficialis 

M.  ischiocavernosus 

M.  bulbocavernosus 

Fascia  superficialis  perinei 


Tunica  serosa 
Tela  subserosa 
Peritonaeum  parietale 
Peritonaeum  viscerale 



Glans  of  clitoris 
Frenulum  of  clitoris 
Prepuce  of  clitoris 

Smegma  of  clitoris 
Cavernous  body  of  clitoris 
Septum  of  cavernous  bodies 
Fascia  of  clitoris 
Suspensory  ligament  of  clitoris 

Female  urethra 

External  orifice  of  urethra 
Spongy  body  of  urethra 
Muscular  coat 

Circular  layer 

Longitudinal  layer 
Submucous  coat 
Mucous  coat 

Urethral  glands 
Urethral  crest 
Para-urethral  ducts 
Ontogenetic    terms 
Deciduous  membranes 

True  decidiia 

Capsular  decidua 

Basal  decidua 
Placenta  ("c^z^e") 

Uterine  placenta 

Foetal  placenta 
Umbilical  cord 
Wolffian  body 
Wolffian  duct 
Muellerian  duct 
Urogenital  sinus 


Perineal  raphe 
Perineal     muscles 
Pelvic     diaphragm 
Levator  muscle  of  anus 

Tendinous  arch  of  levator  ani  mus- 
cle (O.  T.  white  line  of  the  pelvis) 
Coccygeus  muscle 
External    sphincter    muscle    of    anus 

Anococcygeal  ligament 
Pelvic  fascia 

Endopelvic  fascia 

Superior  fascia  of  the  pelvic  dia- 

Tendinous  arch  of  pelvic  fascia 

Middle  puboprostatic  or  puboves- 
ical ligament  (O.  T.  anterior  true 
ligament  of  bladder) 

Lateral   puboprostatic    or   puboves- 
ical ligament  (O.  T.  lateral  true 
ligament  of  bladder) 
Inferior  fascia  of  the  pelvic  diaphragm 
Urogenital   diaphragm   (O. 

T.  triangular  hgament) 
Deep  transverse  muscle  of  perineum 
Sphincter  muscle  of  the  membranous 

urethra  (O.  T.  compressor  urethrae) 
Superior     fascia     of    urogenital     dia- 
phragm (O.  T.  deep  layer  of  trian- 
gular ligament) 
Inferior  fascia  of  urogenital  diaphragm 

(O.  T.  superficial  layer  of  triangular 

Transverse  ligament  of  pelvis  (O.  T. 

median    puboprostatic    ligament    of 

Prostatic  fascia 
Obturator  fascia 
Ischiorectal  fossa 

Superficial  transverse  perineal  muscle 
Ischiocavernous  muscle  (O.  T.  erector 

penis  [vel  clitoridis]  muscle) 
Bulbocavernous    muscle    (O.  T.  ejac- 

ulator  seminis  or  accelerator  urinae; 

sphincter  vaginae) 
Superficial  perineal  fascia 


Serous  coat 
Subserous  tela 
Parietal  peritoneum 
Visceral  peritoneum 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Cavum  peritonaei 
Mesenterium  commune 

Radix  mesenterii 

Lamina  mesenterii  propria 

Mesocolon  transversum 

Mesocolon  ascendens 

Mesocolon  descendens 

Mesocolon  sigmoideum 

Mesenteriolum  processus  vermiformis 
Omentum  minus 

Lig.  hepatogastricum 

Lig.  hepatoduodenale 

(Lig.  hepatocolicum) 
Lig.  gastrolienale 

Lig.  gastrocolicum 
Omentum  majus 
Bursa  omentalis 

Vestibulum  bursae  omentalis 
Recessus  superior  omentalis 
Recessus  inferior  omentalis 
Recessus  lienalis 
Plica  gastropancreatica 
Foramen  epiploicum  [Winslowi] 

Lig.  phrenicocolicum 

Lig.  phrenicolienale 
Lig.  falciforme  hepatis 
Lig.  coronarium  hepatis 
Lig.  triangulare  dextrum 

Lig.  triangulare  sinistrum 

Lig.  hepatorenale 

(Lig.  duodenorenale) 

Recessus  duodenojejunalis 

Plica  duodenojejunalis 

(Plica  duodenomesocolica) 

Recessus  intersigmoideus 

Recessus  ilioc|ecalis  superior 

Recessus  iliocaecalis  inferior 

Plica  iliocaecalis 

Fossa  caecalis 

Recessus  retrocaecalis 

Plica  caecalis 

Recessus  paracolici 

(Fossa  iliacosubfascialis) 

(Recessus  phrenicohepatici) 

Plica  umbilicalis  media 

Plica  umbilicalis  lateralis 

Plica  epigastrica 

Plica  pubovesicalis 

Plica  vesicalis  transversa 


Processus  vaginalis  peritonaei 

Lig.  latum  uteri 

Bursa  ovarica 

Lig.  suspensorium  ovarii 

Plica  rectouterina  [Douglasi] 

Excavatio  rectouterina  [Cavum  Dou- 

Excavatio  vesicouterina 

Excavatio  rectovesicalis 

Spatium  retroperitonaeale 



Peritoneal  cavity 
Common  mesentery 

Root  of  the  mesentery 

Proper  layer  of  the  mesentery 

Transverse  mesocolon 

Ascending  mesocolon 

Descending  mesocolon 

Sigmoid  mesocolon 
Lesser  omentum 

Hepatogastric  ligament 

Hepatoduodenal  ligament 
Hepatocolic  ligament 
Gastrolienal    ligament     (O.  T.  gas- 

trosplenic  omentum) 
Gastrocolic  ligament 
Greater  omentum 

Omental  bursa  (O.  T.     lesser  perito- 
neal sac) 

Vestibule  of  omental  bursa 

Superior  omental  recess 

Inferior  omental  recess 

Splenic  recess 

Gastropancreatic  fold 

Epiploic    foramen    (O.  T.  foramen 
of  Winslow) 
Phrenicocolic    ligament    (O.  T.  cos- 

tocolic  ligament) 
Phrenicosplenic  ligament 
Falciform  ligament  of  liver 
Coronary  ligament  of  liver 
Right  triangular  ligament 

Left  triangular  ligament 

Hepatorenal  ligament 

Duodenorenal  ligament 

Duodenojejunal  recess 

Duodenojejunal  fold 

Duodenomesocolic  fold 

Intersigmoid  recess 

Superior  ileocaecal  recess 

Inferior  ileocaecal  recess 

Ileocaecal  fold 

Caecal  fossa 

Retrocaecal  recess 

Caecal  fold 

Paracolic  recess 

Iliaco-subfascial  fossa 

Phrenicohepatic  recess 

Middle  umbilical  fold 

Lateral  umbilical  fold 

Epigastric  fold 

Pubovesical  fold 

Transverse  vesical  fold 


Sheath  process  of  peritoneum 

Broad  ligament  of  uterus 

Ovarian  bursa 

Suspensory  ligament  of  ovary 

Recto-uterine  fold 

Recto-uterine    excavation,    or    cul-de- 
sac  of  Douglas 

Vesico-uterine  excavation 

Rectovesical  excavation 

Retroperitoneal  space 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Vas  collaterale 

Vas  anastomoticum 

Ramus  communicans 

Plexus  vasculosus 

Rete  vasculosum 

Rete  mirabile 




Vena  cutanea 

Vena  comitans 


Plexus  venosus 

Rete  venosum 

Sinus  [venosus] 


Corpus  cavernosum 

Vas  capillare 

Vas  lymphaticum 

Plexus  lymphaticus 


Nodulus  lymphaticus 


Tunica  externa  [adventitia] 

Tunica  media 

Tunica  intima 

Vasa  vasorum 

Vagina  vasorum 




Basis  cordis 

Facies  sternocostalis 

Facies  diaphragmatica 

Apex  cordis 

Incisura  [apicis]  cordis 

Sulcus  longitudinalis  anterior 

Sulcus  longitudinalis  posterior 

Sulcus  coronarius 

Liquor  pericardii 
Ligg.  sternopericardiaca 
Sinus  transversus  pericardii 




Ventriculus  cordis 

Septum  ventriculorum 

Septum  musculare  ventriculorum 
Septum    membranaceum    ventricu- 

Atrium  cordis 

Auricula  cordis 

Septum  atriorum 

Pars   membranacea   septi   atriorum 

Ostium  venosum 
Ostium  arteriosum 




Collateral  vessel 

Anastomotic  vessel 

Communicating  branch 

Vascular  plexus 

Vascular  rete 

Rete  mirabile  ("wonderful  network") 




Cutaneous  vein 

Accompanying  vein 


Venous  plexus 

Venous  rete 

Venous  sinus 

Emissary  (vessel) 
Cavernous  body 
Capillary  vessel 
Lymphatic  vessel 
Lymphatic  plexus 
Lymph  gland 
Lymph  nodule 
External  coat 
Middle  coat 
Inner  coat 

Vessels  of  the  vessels 
Sheath  of  the  vessels 


Base  of  heart 

Sternocostal  surface 

Diaphragmatic  surface 

Apex  of  heart 

Notch  at  apex  of  heart 

Anterior    longitudinal    sulcus    (O.  T. 

anterior  interventricular  groove) 
Posterior    longitudinal    sulcus    (O.  T. 

posterior  interventricular  groove) 
Coronary  sulcus   (O.  T.   auriculoven- 

tricular  groove) 
Pericardial  fluid 
Sternopericardiac  ligaments 
Transverse  sinus  of  pericardium 




Ventricle  of  heart 

Septum  of  ventricles 

Muscular  septum  of  ventricles 
Membranous  septum  of  ventricles 

Forechamber   (O.  T.  auricle) 
Auricle  (O.  T.  auricular  appendix) 
Septum  of  atria 

Membranous    part    of    septum    of 
Venous  orifice 
Arterial  orifice 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Trabeculae  carneae 
Vortex  cordis 
Mm.  papillares 
Chordae  tendineae 
Trigona  fibrosa 
Annuli  fibrosi 

Atrium  dextrum 

Mm.  pectinati 

Sulcus  terminalis  atrii  dextri 

Crista  terminalis 

Sinus  venarum  [cavarum] 

Limbus  fossae  ovalis  [Vieussenii] 

Auricula  dextra 

Tuberculum  intervenosum  [Loweri] 
Valvula  venae   cavae   [inferioris,   Eu- 

Fossa  ovalis 
Valvula  sinus  coronarii  [Thebesii] 

Foramina  venarum  minimarum  [The- 

Ventriculus  dexter 

Valvula  tricuspidalis 

Cuspis  anterior 

Cuspis  posterior 

Cuspis  medialis 

Crista  supraventricularis 

Conus  arteriosus 

Valvulae  semilunares  a.  puknpnalis 
Valvula  semilunaris  anterior 
Valvula  semilunaris  dextra 
Valvula  semilunaris  sinistra 

Noduli  valvularum  semilunarium 

Lunulae  valvularum  semilunarium 

Atrium  sinistrum 

Auricula  sinistra 

Valvula  foraminis  ovalis 

Ventriculus  sinister 

Valvula  bicuspidalis  [mitralis] 

Cuspis  anterior 
Cuspis  posterior 

Valvulae  semilunares  aortae 
Valvula  semilunaris  posterior 
Valvula  semilunaris  dextra 
Valvula  semilunaris  sinistra 

Noduli  valvularum  semilunarium 

Lunulae  valvularum  semilunarium 


A.  pulmonalis 

Ramus  dexter 
Ramus  sinister 
Ductus  arteriosus  [BotaUi\ 
Ligamentum  arteriosum 


Aorta  ascendens 

Bulbus  aortae 

Sinus  aortae  [Valsalvae] 

Arcus  aortae 

Isthmus  aortae 

Aorta  descendens 

A.  coronaria  [cordis]  dextra 

Ramus  descendens  posterior 
A.  coronaria  [cordis]  sinistra 



Fleshy  cords  (O.  T.  columnae  carnae) 

Vortex  of  heart 

Papillary  muscles 

Tendinous  cords 

Fibrous  trigones 

Fibrous  rings 

Right  atrium 

Pectinate  ("comb-like")  muscles 

Terminal  sulcus  of  the  right  atrium 

Terminal  crest 

Venous  sinus 

Edge  of  oval  fossa  (O.  T.  annulus 

Right  auricle  (O.  T.  right  auricular  ap- 

Intervenous  tubercle  of  Lower 

Valve  of  inferior  vena  cava  (O.  T. 
Eustachian  valve) 

Oval  fossa 

Valve  of  coronary  sinus  (O.  T.  coronary 
valve,  or  valve  of  Thebesius) 

Foramina  of  the  smallest  veins  (O.  T. 
foramina  Thebesii) 

Right  ventricle 

Tricuspid  valve  (O.  T.  right  auriculo- 
ventricular  valve) 
Anterior    cusp    (O.  T.  infundibular 

Posterior    cusp    (O.    T.    marginal 

Medial  cusp  (O.  T.  septal  cusp) 
Supraventricular  crest 
Arterial  cone 
Semilunar  valves  of  pulmonary  artery 

Anterior  semilunar  valve 

Right  semilunar  valve 

Left  semilunar  valve 
Nodules  of  the  semilunar  valves 
Crescents  of  the  semilunar  valves 

Left  atrium  (0.  T.  left  auricle) 

Left    auricle    (O.    T.    left    auricular 

Valve  of  the  foramen 

Left  ventricle 

Bicuspid  or  mitral  valve    (O.  T.  left 
auriculoventricular  valve) 

Anterior  cusp 

Posterior  cusp 
Semilunar  valves  of  aorta 

Posterior  semilunar  valve 

Right  semilunar  valve 

Left  semilunar  valve 
Nodules  of  the  semilunar  valves  (O.  T. 

corpora  Arantii) 
Crescents,    or    "sails"    of    semilunar 



Pulmonary  artery 

Right  ramus 
Left  ramus 
Arterial  duct 
Arterial  ligament 


Ascending  aorta 

Bulb  of  aorta 

Sinuses    of    aorta    (O.  T.  sinus    Val- 

Arch  of  aorta 

Isthmus  of  aorta 

Descending  aorta 

Right  coronary  artery  of  heart 
Posterior  descending  ramus 

Left  coronary  artery  of  heart 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ramus  circumflexus 
Ramus  descendens  anterior 

A.  anonyma 

(A.  thyreoidea  ima) 

A.  carotis  communis 

A.  carotis  externa 
A.  thyreoidea  superior 

Ramus  hyoideus 

Ramus  sternocleidomastoideus 

A.  laryngea  superior 

Ramus  cricothyreoideus 

Ramus  anterior 

Ramus  posterior 

Rami  glandulares 

A.  pharjmgea  ascendens 
A.  meningea  posterior 
Rami  pharyngei 
A.  tympanica  inferior 

A.  lingualis 

Ramus  hyoideus 
A.  subHnguaKs 
Rami  dorsales  hnguae 
A.  profunda  Hnguae 

A.  maxillaris  externa 

A.  palatina  ascendens 
Ramus  tonsillaris 
A.  submentalis 
Rami  glandulares 
A.  labialis  inferior 
A.  labialis  superior 
A.  angularis 

A.  stemocleidomastoidea 
A.  occipitalis    . 

Ramus  mastoideus 
Ramus  auricularis 

Rami  musculares 

Ramus  descendens 
(Ramus  meningeus) 
Rami  occipitales 

A.  auricularis  posterior 
A.  stylomastoidea 

A.  tympanica  posterior 

Rami  mastoidei 

Ramus  stapedius 
Ramus  auricularis 
Ramus  occipitalis  , 

A.  temporalis  superficialis 

Rami  parotidei 

A.  transversa  faciei 

Rami  auriculares  anteriores 

A.  zygomaticoorbitalis 

A.  temporalis  media 

Ramus  frontalis 

Ramus  parietalis 

A.  maxillaris  interna 
A.  auricularis  profunda 
A.  tympanica  anterior 
A.  alveolaris  inferior 

R.  mylohyoideus 

A.  mentalis 

A.  meningea  media 

(Ramus  meningeus  accessorius) 

Ramus  petrosus  superficialis 

A.  tympanica  superior 
A.  masseterica 

A.  temporalis  profunda  posterior 
A.  temporalis  profunda  anterior 
Rami  pterygoidei 
A.  buccinatoria 
A.  alveolaris  superior  posterior 

A.  infraorbitalis 

Aa.  alveol.  superiores  anteriores 



Circumflex  ramus 
Anterior  descending  ramus 

Innominate  artery 

Lowest  thyreoid  artery 

Common  carotid  artery 
External  carotid  artery 

Superior  thyreoid  artery 

Hyoid  ramus 

Sternocleidomastoid  ramus 
Superior  laryngeal  artery 
Cricothyreoid  ramus 
Anterior  ramus 
Posterior  ramus 
Glandular  rami 

Ascending  pharyngeal  artery 

Posterior  meningeal  artery 
Pharyngeal  rami 
Inferior  tympanic  artery 

Lingual  artery 

Hyoid  ramus 
Sublingual  artery 
Dorsal  rami  of  tongue 
Deep  artery  of  tongue   (O.  T.  ranine 

External  maxillary  artery  (O.  T. 
facial  artery) 
Ascending  palatine  artery 
Tonsillar  rami 
Submental  artery 
Glandular  rami 
Inferior  labial  artery 
Superior  labial  artery 
Angular  artery 

Stemocleido  mastoid  artery 
Occipital  artery 

Mastoid  ramus 
Auricular  ramus 

Muscular  rami 

Descending  ramus 
Meningeal  ramus 
Occipital  rami 

Posterior  auricular  artery 

Stylomastoid  artery 

Posterior  tympanic  artery 

Mastoid  rami 

Stapedial  ramus 
Auricular  ramus 
Occipital  ramus 

Superficial  temporal  artery 

Parotid  rami 
Transverse  artery  of  face 
Anterior  auricular  rami 
Zygomatico-orbital  artery 
Middle  temporal  artery 
Frontal  ramus 
Parietal  ramus 

Internal  maxillary  artery 

Deep  auricular  artery 

Anterior  tympanic  artery 

Inferior    alveolar    artery    (O.   T.    in- 
ferior dental) 

Mylohyoid  ramus 

Mental  artery 

Middle  meningeal  artery 

Accessory    meningeal    ramus    (O.  T. 
small  meningeal) 
Superficial  petrosal  ramus 
Superior  tympanic  artery 

Masseteric  artery 

Posterior  deep  temporal  artery 

Anterior  deep  temporal  artery 

Pterygoid  rami 

Buccinator  artery  (O.  T.  buccal) 

Posterior  superior  alveolar  artery  (O. 
T.  posterior  dental) 

Infraorbital  artery 

Anterior   superior   alveolar   arteries 
(O.  T.  anterior  superior  dental) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

A.  palatina  descendens 
A.  canalis  pterygoidei  [Vidii] 
A.  palatina  major 
Aa.  palatinae  minores 
A.  sphenopalatina 
Aa.  nasales  posteriores  laterales  et 

A.  carotis  interna 

Ramus  caroticotympanicus 

A.  ophthalmica 

A.  centralis  retinae 

A.  lacrimalis 

Aa.  palpebrales  laterales 

Rami  musculares 

Aa.  ciliares  posteriores  breves 

Aa.  ciliares  posteriores  longae 

Aa.  ciliares  anteriores 

Aa.  conjunctrvales  anteriores 

Aa.  conjunctivales  posteriores 

Aa.  episclerales 

A.  supraorbitalis 

A.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

A.  ethmoidalis  anterior 

A.  meningea  anterior 

Aa.  palpebrales  mediales 

Arcus  tarseus  superior 

Arcus  tarseus  inferior 

A.  frontalis 

A.  dorsalis  nasi 

Aa.  cerebri 

A.  communicans  posterior 
A.  chorioidea 

A.  cerebri  anterior 

A.  communicans  anterior 

A.  cerebri  media 

A.  subclavia 

A.  vertebralis 

Rami  spinales 
A.  spinalis  posterior 
A.  spinalis  anterior 
Ramus  meningeus 

A.  cerebelli  inferior  posterior 

A.  basilaris 

A.  cerebelli  inferior  anterior 
A.  auditiva  interna 

Rami  ad  pontem 

A.  cerebelli  superior 
A.  cerebri  posterior 
Circulus  arteriosus  [Willisi] 

A.  mammaria  interna 

Aa.  mediastinales  anteriores 

Aa.  thymicae 

Rami  bronchiales 

A.  pericardiacophrenica 

Rami  sternales 
Rami  perforantes 

Rami  mammarii 

Rami  musculares 

Rami  cutanei 
(Ramus  costalis  lateralis) 
Rami  intercostales 

A.  musculophrenica 
A.  epigastrica  superior 

Truncus  thyreocervicalis 

A.  thyreoidea  inferior 

A.  laryngea  inferior 
Rami  pharyngei 
Rami  oesophagei 



Descending  palatine  artery 
Artery  of  pterygoid  canal 
Greater  palatine  artery 
Lesser  palatine  arteries 
Sphenopalatine  artery 
Posterior  lateral  arteries  of  the  nose 
and  of  septum 

Internal  carotid  artery 

Caroticotympanic   ramus  (O.  T.  tym- 
panic branch) 

Ophthalmic  artery 

Central  artery  of  retina 

Lacrimal  artery 

Lateral  palpebral  arteries 

Muscular  rami  ■     • 

Short  posterior  ciliary  arteries 

Long  posterior  ciliary  arteries 

Anterior  ciliary  arteries 

Anterior  conjunctival  arteries 

Posterior  conjunctival  arteries 

Episcleral  arteries 

Supraorbital  artery 

Posterior  ethmoidal  artery 

Anterior  ethmoidal  artery 

Anterior  meningeal  artery 

Middle  palpebral  arteries 

Superior  tarsal  arch 

Inferior  tarsal  arch 

Frontal  artery 

Dorsal  artery  of  nose 

Cerebral  arteries 

Posterior  communicating  artery 
Chorioid   artery    (O.  T.  anterior   cho- 
Anterior  cerebral  artery 
Anterior  communicating  artery 
Middle  cerebral  artery  (O.  T.  arteria 
fossae  Sylvii) 

Subclavian  artery 

Vertebral  artery 

Spinal  rami 

Posterior  spinal  artery 

Anterior  spinal  artery 

Meningeal     ramus     (O.  T.    posterior 

meningeal  branch) 
Posterior  inferior  cerebellar  artery 

Basilar  artery 

Anterior  inferior  cerebellar  artery 

Internal  auditory  artery  (O.  T.  audi- 
tory artery) 

Rami  to  pons  (O.  T.  transverse  arter- 

Superior  cerebellar  arteries 

Posterior  cerebral  artery 

Arterial  circle  of  Willis 

Internal  mammary  artery- 
Anterior  mediastinal  arteries 
Thymic  arteries 
Bronchial  rami 
Pericardiacophrenic    artery     (O.  T. 

arteria  comes  nervi  phrenici) 
Sternal  rami 
Perforating  rami 

Mammary  rami 

Muscular  rami 

Cutaneous  rami 
Lateral  costal  ramus 
Intercostal  rami  (O.  T.  anterior  inter- 

Musculophrenic  artery 
Superior  epigastric  artery 

Thyreocervical   trunk   (0.  T.  thy- 
roid axis) 

Inferior  thyreoid  artery 

Inferior  laryngeal  artery 
Pharyngeal  rami 
Oesophageal  rami 


Rami  tracheales 
Rami  glandulares 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

A.  circumflexa  scapulae 

A.  cervicalis  ascendens 

Rami  spinales 
Rami  musculares 
Ramus  profundus 

A.  cervicalis  superficialis 

A.  transversa  scapulae 

Ramus  acromialis 

Truncus  costocervicalis 

A.  intercostalis  suprema 

Rami  dorsales 
Rami  spinales 
A.  cervicalis  profunda 

A.  transversa  colli 

Ramus  ascendens 
Ramus  descendens 

A.  axillaris 

Rami  subscapulares 

A.  thoracalis  suprema 

A.  thoracoacromialis 

Ramus  acromialis 
Rete  acromiale 
Ramus  deltoideus 
Rami  pectorales 

A.  thoracalis  lateralis 

Rami  mammarii  externi 

A.  subscapularis 
A.  thoracodorsalis 

A.  circumflexa  humeri  anterior 
A.  circumflexa  humeri  posterior 
A.  brachialis 

A.  profunda  brachii 

Aa.  nutritiae  humeri 
R.  deltoideus 
A.  collateralis  media 
A.  collateralis  radialis 

A.  collateralis  ulnaris  superior 
A.  collateralis  ulnaris  inferior 

A.  radialis 

A.  recurrens  radialis 
Rami  musculares 
Ramus  carpeus  volaris 

Ramus  volaris  superficialis 
Ramus  carpeus  dorsalis 

Rete  carpi  dorsale 

Aa.  metacarpeae  dorsales 

Aa.  digitales  dorsales 
A.  princeps  pollicis 

A.  volaris  indicis  radialis 

Arcus  volaris  profundus 

Aa.  metacarpeae  volares 
Rami  perforantes 



Tracheal  rami 
Glandular  rami 

Ascending  cervical  artery- 
Spinal  rami 
Muscular  rami 
Deep  ramus 

Superficial  cervical  artery 

Transverse  artery  of  scapula  (O.  T. 

Acromial  ramus 

Costocervical  trunk  (0.  T.  superior 

Highest     intercostal     artery     (O.     T. 
superior  intercostal  proper) 

Dorsal  rami 

Spinal  rami 
Deep  cervical  artery 

Transverse   artery  of  neck   (O.  T. 
transversalis  colli) 

Ascending  ramus 
Descending  ramus 

Axillary  artery 

Subscapular  rami 

Highest  thoracic  artery  (0.  T.  supe- 
rior thoracic  artery) 

Thoraco-acromial     artery    (0.   T. 
acromiothoracic  or  thoracic  axis) 
Acromial  ramus 
Acromial  rete 
Deltoid  ramus 
Pectoral  rami 

Lateral  thoracic  artery  (0.  T. 

External  mammary  rami 

Subscapular  artery 

Thoracodorsal  artery 


Circumflex  artery  of  scapula   (O.  T. 
dorsalis  scapulae) 

Anterior  circumflex  artery  of  hu- 

Posterior  circumflex  artery  of  hu- 

Brachial  artery 

Deep  artery  of  upper  arm  (0.  T. 
superior  profunda) 

Nutrient  arteries  of  the  humerus 
Deltoid  ramus 
Middle  collateral  artery 
Radial  collateral  artery  (O.  T.  articu- 
lar branch  of  superior  profunda) 

Superior  ulnar  collateral  artery  (O. 
T.  inferior  profunda) 

Inferior  ulnar  collateral  artery  (O. 
T.  anastomotica  magna) 

Radial  artery 

Radial  recurrent  artery 

Muscular  rami 

Volar    carpal    ramus    (O.  T.  anterior 

radial  carpal) 
Superficial  volar  ramus 
Dorsal  carpal  ramus  (O.  T.  posterior 

radial  carpal) 
Dorsal    carpal    rete    (O.  T.  posterior 

carpal  rete) 
Dorsal     metacarpal     arteries     (O.  T. 

dorsal  interosseous  arteries) 
Dorsal  digital  arteries 
Principal  artery  of  thumb 

Radial  volar  artery  of  index-finger 
(O.  T.  arteria  radiahs  indicis) 
Deep  volar  arch  (O.  T.  deep  palmar 

Volar  metacarpal  arteries 
Perforating  rami 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

A.  ulnaris 

Aa.  recurrentes  ulnares 
Rete  articulare  cubiti 
A.  interossea  communis 
A.  interossea  dorsalis 

A.  interossea  recurrens 

A.  interossea  volaris 

A.  mediana 
Rami  musculares 
Ramus  carpeus  dorsalis 

Ramus  carpeus  volaris 

Ramus  volaris  profundus 
Arcus  volaris  superficialis 

.Aa.  digitales  volares  communes 

Aa.  digitales  volares  propriae 

Aorta  thoracalis 

Rami  viscerales 
Aa.  bronchiales 
Aa.  oesophageae 
Rami  pericardiaci 

Rami   parietales 
Rami  mediastinals 
Aa.  phrenicae  superiores 

Aa.  intercostales 

Rami  posteriores 

Ramus  spinalis 

Rami  musculares 

Ramus  cutaneus  medialis 

Ramus  cutaneus  lateralis 
Rami  anteriores 

Rami  musculares 

Rami    cutanei    laterales  [pectorales 
et  abdominales] 

Ramus  posterior 
Ramus  anterior 
Rami  mammarii  laterales 
Rami     cutanei     anteriores     [pecto- 
rales et  abdominales] 
Rami  mammarii  mediales 

Aorta  abdominalis 

Rami   parietales 

A.  phrenica  inferior 

Rami  suprarenales  superiores 

Aa.  lumbales 

Ramus  dorsalis 
Ramus  spinalis 

A.  sacralis  media 

A.  lumbalis  ima 
Glomus  coccygeum 

Rami   viscerales 

A.  coeliaca 

A.   gastrica   sinistra 
Rami  oesophagei 
A.   hepatica 
A.  gastrica  dextra 
A.  hepatica  propria 

Ramus  dexter 

A.  cystica 

Ramus  sinister 
A.  gastroduodenalis 

A.  pancreaticoduoden.  superior 
Rami  pancreatici 
Rami  duodenales 

A.  gastroepiploica  dextra 
Rami  epiploici 
A.   1  i  e  n  a  1  i  s 
Rami  pancreatici 
A.  gastroepiploica  sinistra 
Aa.  gastricae  breves 
Rami  lienales 



Ulnar  artery 

Hecurrent  ulnar  arteries 
Articular  rete  of  elbow 
Common  interosseous  artery 
Dorsal     interosseous     artery    (O.     T. 
posterior  interosseous) 

Recurrent  interosseous  artery  (O.  T. 
posterior  interosseous  recurrent) 
Volar     interosseous     artery     (O.     T. 

anterior  interosseous) 
Median  artery 
Muscular  rami 
Dorsal  carpal  ramus  (O.  T.  posterior 

ulnar  carpal) 
Volar    carpal    ramus    (O.  T.  anterior 

ulnar  carpal) 
Deep  volar  ramus 

Superficial   volar    arch    (O.  T.  super- 
ficial palmar  arch) 
Common  volar  digital  arteries  (O.  T. 

palmar  digital  arteries) 
Volar   digital   arteries   proper    (O.  T. 

collateral  digital  arteries) 

Thoracic  aorta 

Visceral     rami 
Bronchial  arteries 
Oesophageal  arteries 
Pericardial  rami 

Parietal     rami 
Mediastinal  rami 
Superior  phrenic  arteries 

Intercostal  arteries 

Posterior  rami 

Spinal  rami 

Muscular  rami 

Medial  cutaneous  ramus 

Lateral  cutaneous  ramus 
Anterior  rami 

Muscular  rami 

Lateral    cutaneous    rami    of    breast 
and  abdomen 

Posterior  ramus 
Anterior  ramus 
Lateral  mammary  rami 
Anterior  cutaneous  rami  of  breast 
and  abdomen 
Medial  mammary  rami 

Abdominal  aorta 

Parietal    rami 

Inferior  phrenic  artery 

Superior  suprarenal  rami 

Lumbar  arteries 

Dorsal  ramus 
Spinal  ramus 

Middle  sacral  artery 

Lowest  lumbar  artery 
Coccygeal  skein 

Visceral    rami 

Coeliac  artery 

Left    gastric    artery 
Oesophageal  rami 
Hepatic  artery 
Right  gastric  artery 
Proper  hepatic  artery 

Right  ramus 

Cystic  artery 

Left  ramus 
Gastroduodenal  artery 

Superior  pancreaticoduodenal  artery 
Pancreatic  rami 
Duodenal  rami 

Right  gastro-epiploic  artery 
Epiploic  rami 
Splenic    artery 
Pancreatic  rami 
Left  gastro-epiploic  artery 
Short  gastric  arteries 
Splenic  rami 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

A.  mesenterica  superior 

Aa.  intestinales 

A.  pancreaticoduodenalis  inferior 
Aa,  jejunales 
Aa.  ileae 

A.  ileocolica 

A.  appendicularis 
A.  colica  dextra 
A.  colica  media 

A.  mesenterica  inferior 
A.  colica  sinistra 
Aa.  sigmoideae 
A.  haemorrhoidalis  superior 

A.  suprarenalis  media 

A.  renalis 
A.  suprarenalis  inferior 

A.  spermatica  interna 

A.  testicularis 

A.  ovarica 

A.  iliaca  communis 

A.  hypogastrica 

Rami     parietales 

A.  iliolumbalis 

Ramus  lumbalis 
Ramus  spinalis 
Ramus  iliacus 

A.  sacralis  lateralis 
Rami  spinales 

A.  obturatoria 

Ramus  pubicus 

Ramus  anterior  ^ 

Ramus  posterior 

A.  acetabuli 

A.  glutaea  superior 

amus  superior 
Ramus  inferior 

A.  glutaea  inferior 
A.  comitans  n.  ischiadici 

Rami  viscerales 

A.  umbilicalis 

Aa.  vesicales  superiores 
[Ligamentum  umbilicale  laterale] 

A.  vesicalis  inferior 
A.  deferentialis 
A.  uterina 
A.  vaginalis 
Ramus  ovarii 
Ramus  tubarius 

A.  haemorrhoidalis  media 
A.  pudenda  interna 
A.  haemorrhoidalis  inferior 
A.  perinei 

Aa.  scrotales  posteriores 
Aa.  labiales  posteriores 
A.  penis 
A.  urethralis 
A.  bulbi  urethrae 
A.  bulbi  vestibuli  [vaginae] 
A.  profunda  penis 
A.  dorsalis  penis 
A.  clitoridis 
A.  profunda  clitoridis 
A.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

A.  iliaca  externa 

A.  epigastrica  inferior 

Ramus  pubicus 

Ramus  obturatorius 
A.  spermatica  externa 



Superior  mesenteric  artery- 
Intestinal  arteries 

Inferior  pancreaticoduodenal  artery 

Jejunal  arteries 

Ileal   arteries    (O.  T.  rami   intestini 

Ileocolic  artery 

Appendicular  artery 
Right  colic  artery 
Middle  colic  artery 

Inferior  mesenteric  artery 

Left  colic  artery 
Sigmoid  arteries 
Superior  hemorrhoidal  artery 

Middle   suprarenal    artery    (0.    T 
middle  capsular  artery) 

Renal  artery- 
Inferior  suprarenal  artery 

Internal  spermatic  artery 

Testicular  artery 

Ovarian  artery 

Common  iliac  artery 

Hypogastric  artery  (O.  T.  inter= 
nal  iliac) 

Parietal     rami 

Iliolumbar  artery 

Lumbar  ramus 
Spinal  ramus 
Iliac  ramus 

Lateral  sacral  artery 
Spinal  rami 

Obturator  artery 

Pubic  ramus 
Anterior  ramus 
Posterior  ramus 
Artery  of  acetabulum 

Superior  gluteal  artery 

Superior  ramus 
Inferior  ramus 

Inferior  gluteal  artery 

Companion  artery  of  sciatic  nerve 
Visceral      rami 

Umbilical  artery 
Superior  vesical  arteries 
[Lateral  umbilical  ligament] 

Inferior  vesical  artery 
Deferential  artery 
Uterine  artery 
Vaginal  artery 
Ovarian  ramus 
Tubal  ramus 

Middle  hemorrhoidal  artery 

Internal  pudendal  artery 

Inferior  hemorrhoidal  artery 

Artery  of  perineum 

Posterior  scrotal  arteries 

Posterior  labial  arteries 

Artery  of  penis 

Urethral  artery 

Artery  of  the  bulb  of  urethra 

Artery  of  the  vestibular  bulb  of  vagina 

Deep  artery  of  penis 

Dorsal  artery  of  penis 

Artery  of  clitoris 

Deep  artery  of  clitoris 

Dorsal  artery  of  clitoris 

External  iliac  artery 

Inferior  epigastric  artery  (0.  T.  deep 

Pubic  ramus 

Obturator  ramus 
External    spermatic    artery    (O.  T. 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

A.  lig.  teretis  uteri 

A.  circumflexa  ilium  profunda 
A.  femoralis 

A.  epigastrica  superficialis 

A.  circumflexa  ilium  superficialis 

Aa.  pudendae  externae 

Aa.  scrotales  anteriores 

Aa.  labiales  anteriores 

Rami  inguinales 

A.   profunda   femoris 

A.  circumflexa  femoris  medialis 

Ramus  superficialis 
Ramus  profundus 
Ramus  acetabuli 
A.  circumflexa  femoris  lateralis 

Ramus  ascendens 

Ramus  descendens 
A.  perforans  prima 
A.  nutritia  femoris  superior 
A.  perforans  secunda 
A.  perforans  tertia 
A.  nutritia  femoris  inferior 
Rami  musculares 
A.   genu   suprema 
Rami  musculares 
Ramus  saphenus 
Rami  articulares 

A.  poplitea 

A.  genu  superior  lateralis 

A.  genu  superior  medialis 

A.  genu  media 

Aa.  surales 

A.  genu  inferior  lateralis 

A.  genu  inferior  medialis 

Rete  articulare  genu 
Rete  patellae 

A.  tibialis  anterior 

(A.  recurrens  tibialis  posterior) 
A.  recurrens  tibialis  anterior 
A.  malleolaris  anterior  lateralis 

A.  malleolaris  anterior  medialis 

Rete  malleolare  mediale 

Rete  malleolare  laterale 

A.  dorsalis  pedis 

A.  tarsea  lateralis 

Aa.  tarseae  mediales 

A.  arcuata 

Rete  dorsale  pedis 

Aa.  metatarseae  dorsales 

Aa.  digitales  dorsales 

Ramus  plantaris  profundus 

A.  tibialis  posterior 

Ramus  fibularis 
A.  peronaea 
A.  nutritia  fibulae 
Ramus  perforans 

Ramus  communicans 

A.  malleolaris  posterior  lateralis 

Rami  calcanei  laterales 

A.  nutritia  tibiae 

A.  malleolaris  posterior  medialis 

Rami  calcanei  mediales 

Rete  calcaneum 

A.  plantaris  medialis 

Ramus  profundus 



Artery  of  round  ligament  of  uterus 

Deep  circumflex  iliac  artery 
Femoral  artery 

Superficial  epigastric  artery 
Superficial  circumflex  iliac  artery 
External    pudendal    arteries    (O.    T. 

superficial  and  deep  external  pudic 

Anterior  scrotal  arteries 
Anterior  labial  arteries 
Inguinal  rami 

Deep    artery    of    thigh 
Medial    circumflex    artery    of    thigh 
(O.  T.  internal  circumflex) 

Superficial  ramus 

Deep  ramus 

Ramus  to  acetabulum 
Lateral    circumflex    artery    of    thigh 
(O.  T.  external  circumflex) 

Ascending  ramus 

Descending  ramus 
First  perforating  artery 
Superior  nutrient  artery  of  femur 
Second  perforating  artery 
Third  perforating  artery 
Inferior  nutrient  artery  of  femur 
Muscular  rami 

Highest    artery    of    knee 
Muscular  rami 
Saphenous  ramus 
Articular  rami 

Popliteal  artery 

Lateral  superior  artery  of  knee  (O.  T. 

superior    external    articular    artery) 
Medial  superior  artery  of  knee  (O.  T. 

superior  internal  articular  artery) 
Middle  artery  of  knee  (O.  T.  azygos 

articular  artery) 
Sural  arteries,  or  arteries  of  calf 
Lateral  inferior  artery  of  knee  (O.  T. 

inferior  external  articular  artery) 

Medial  inferior  artery  of  knee  (O.  T. 

inferior  internal  articular  artery) 
Arterial  network  about  knee-joint 
Patellar  network 

Anterior  tibial  artery 

Posterior  recurrent  tibial  artery 
Anterior  recurrent  tibial  artery 
Lateral  anterior  malleolar  artery  (O.  T. 

external  malleolar) 
Medial  anterior  malleolar  artery  (O.  T. 

internal  malleolar) 
Medial  malleolar  network 
Lateral  malleolar  network 
Dorsal  artery  of  foot 
Lateral  tarsal  artery 
Medial  tarsal  arteries 
Arcuate  artery 
Dorsal  network  of  foot 
Dorsal  metatarsal  arteries 
Dorsal  digital  arteries 
Deep  plantar  ramus 

Posterior  tibial  artery 

Fibular  ramus 

Peroneal  artery 

Nutrient  artery  of  fibula 

Perforating    ramus    (O.  T.  anterior 

Communicating  ramus 

Lateral  posterior  malleolar  artery  (O. 
T.  posterior  peroneal) 

Lateral  calcanean  rami  (O.  T.  exter- 
nal calcanean) 

Nutrient  artery  of  tibia 

Medial  posterior  malleolar  artery  (O. 
T.  internal  malleolar) 

Medial  calcanean  rami  (O.  T.  internal 

Network  of  heel 

Medial  plantar  artery  (O.  T.  internal 
Deep  ramus 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ramus  superficialis 
A.  plantaris  lateralis 

Arcus  plantaris 

Aa.  metatarseae  plantares 

Rami  perforantes 
Aa.  digitales  plantares 


Venae  pulmonales 

Vv.  pulmonales  dextrae 
Vv.  pulmonales  sinistrae 

Vv.  cordis 

Sinus  coronarius 
V.  cordis  magna 

V.  posterior  ventriculi  sinistri 

V.  obliqua  atrii  sinistri  [Marshalli] 

Lig.  V.  cavae  sinistrae 

V.  cordis  media 
V.  cordis  parva 
Vv.  cordis  anteriores 
Vv.  cordis  minimae 

Vena  cava  superior 
Vv.  anonymae  dextra  et  sinistra 

Vv.  thyreoideae  inferiores 
V.  thyreoidea  ima 
Plexus  thyreoideus  impar 
V.  laryngea  inferior 
Vv.  thymicae 
Vv.  pericardiacae 
Vv.  phrenicae  superiores 
Vv.  mediastinals  anteriores 
Vv.  bronchiales  anteriores 
Vv.  tracheales 
Vv.  oesophageae 
V.  vertebralis 

V.  cervicalis  profunda 
V.  mammaria  interna 
Vv.  subcutaneae  abdominis 
V.  epigastrica  superior 
V.  intercostalis  suprema 

V.  jugularis  interna 

Bulbus  venae  jugularis  superior 

V.  canaliculi  cochleae 

Bulbus  V.  jugularis  inferior 

Plexus  pharyngeus 

Vv.  pharyngeae 

Vv.  meningeae 

Vv.  canalis  pterygoidei  [Vidii] 

V.  lingualis 

Vv.  dorsales  linguae 

V.  sublingualis 

V.  comitans  n.  hypoglossi 

(Vv.  thyreoideae  superiores) 

V.  sternocleidomastoidea 

V.  laryngea  superior 

Sinus  durae  matris 

Sinus  transversus 
Confiuens  sinuum 

Vv.  auditivae  intemae 
Sinus  occipitalis 
Plexus  basilaris 
Sinus  sagittalis  superior 

Sinus  sagittalis  inferior 



Superficial  ramus 
Lateral  plantar  artery  (O:  T.  external 

Plantar  arch 

Plantar  metatarsal  arteries  (O.  T. 
digital  branches) 

Perforating  rami 

Plantar  digital  arteries  (O.  T.  collat- 
eral digital  branches) 


Pulmonary  veins 

Right  pulmonary  veins 
Left  pulmonary  veins 

Veins  of  heart 

Coronary  sinus 

Large     vein     of    heart     (O.  T.  great 

cardiac  vein) 
Posterior  vein  of  left  ventricle 
Oblique   vein   of   left   atrium    (O.  T. 

oblique  vein  of  Marshall) 
Ligament    of   left   vena    cava    (O.  T. 

vestigial  fold  of  Marshall) 
Middle  vein  of  heart 
Small  vein  of  heart 
Anterior  veins  of  heart 
Smallest  veins   of   heart    (O.  T.  Vv. 


Superior  vena  cava 
Right  and  left  innominate  veins 

Inferior  thyreoid  veins 
Lowest  thyreoid  vein 
Unpaired  thyreoid  plexus 
Inferior  laryngeal  vein 
Thymic  veins 
Pericardiac  veins 
Superior  phrenic  veins 
Anterior  mediastinal  veins 
Anterior  bronchial  veins 
Tracheal  veins 
Oesophageal  veins 
Vertebral  vein 

Deep  cervical  vein 
Internal  mammary  vein 
Subcutaneous  veins  of  abdomen 
Superior  epigastric  vein 
Highest    intercostal    vein    (O.  T. 
superior  intercostal  vein) 


Internal  jugular  vein 

Upper  bulb  of  jugular  vein 

Vein  of  canaliculus  of  cochlea 

Inferior  bulb  of  jugular  vein 

Pharyngeal  plexus 

Pharyngeal  veins 

Meningeal  veins 

Veins  of  the  pterygoid  canal 

Lingual  vein 

Dorsal"  veins  of  tongue 

Sublingual  vein 

Companion  vein  to  hypoglossal  nerve 

Superior  thyreoid  veins 

Sternocleidomastoid  vein 

Superior  laryngeal  vein 

Sinuses  of  the  dura  mater 

Transverse  sinus  (O.  T.  lateral  sinus) 
Confluence     of     the     sinuses     (O.  T. 

torcular  Herophili) 
Internal  auditor]^  veins 
Occipital  sinus 

Basilar    plexus    (O.  T.  basilar    sinus) 
Superior  sagittal  sinus  (O.  T.  superior 

longitudinal  sinus) 
Inferior  sagittal  sinus   (O.  T.  inferior 

longitudinal  sinus) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Sinus  rectus 

Sinus  petrosus  inferior 

Sinus  petrosus  superior 

Sinus  cavernosus 

Sinus  intercavernosus  anterior 

Sinus  intercavernosus  posterior 

Sinus  circularis 

Sinus  sphenoparietalis 

Venae  diploicae 

V.  diploica  frontalis 

V.  diploica  temporalis  anterior 

V.  diploica  temporalis  posterior 

V.  diploica  occipitalis 
Emissarium  parietale 
Emissarium  mastoideum 
Emissarium  condyloideum 
Emissarium  occipitale 
Rete  canalis  hypoglossi 
Rete  foraminis  ovalis 
Plexus  venosus  caroticus  internus 

Venae  cerebri 

Vv.  cerebri  superiores 
V.  cerebri  media 
Vv.  cerebri  inferiores 
Vv.  cerebelli  superiores 
Vv.  cerebelli  inferiores 
Vv.  cerebri  internae 

V.  cerebri  magna  [Galeni] 

V.  septi  pellucidi 
V.  terminalis 

V.  basalis  [Rosenthali] 

V.  chorioidea 

V.  ophthalmomeningea 

V.  ophthalmica  superior 

V.  nasofrontalis 

V.  ethmoidalis  anterior 

V.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

V.  lacrimalis 

Vv.  musculares 

Vv.  vorticosae 

Vv.  ciliares  posteriores 

Vv.  ciliares  anteriores 

V.  centralis  retinae 

Vv.  episclerales 

Vv.  palpebrales 

Vv.  conjunctivales  anteriores 

Vv.  conjunctivales  posteriores 

V.  ophthalmica  inferior 

V.  facialis  communis' 
V.  facialis  anterior 
V.  angularis 
Vv.  frontales 
V.  supraorbitalis 
V.  palpebrales  superiores 
V.  nasales  externae 
V.  palpebrales  inferiores 
V.  labialis  superior 
V.  labialis  inferior 
Vv.  massetericae 
Vv.  parotideae  anteriores 
V.  palatina 
V.  submentalis 

V.  facialis  posterior 
Vv.  temporales  superficiales 

Vv.  auriculares  anteriores 
Vv.  parotideae  posteriores 
Vv.  articulares  mandibulae 
Vv.  tympanicae 
V.  stylomastoidea 
V.  transversa  faciei 
V.  temporalis  media 
Plexus  pterygoideus 
Vv.  meningeae  mediae 
Vv.  temporales  profundae 
V.  thyreoidea  superior 

V.  jugularis  externa 

V.  occipitalis 



Straight  sinus 

Inferior  petrosal  sinus 

Superior  petrosal  sinus 

Cavernous  sinus 

Anterior  intercavernous  sinus 

Posterior  intercavernous  sinus 

Circular  sinus 

Sphenoparietal  sinus  (O.  T.  sinus  alae 

Diploic  veins 

Frontal  diploic  vein 

Anterior  temporal  diploic  vein 

Posterior  temporal  diploic  vein 

Occipital  diploic  vein 
Parietal  emissary 
Mastoid  emissary 
Condyloid  emissary 
Occipital  emissary 
Network  of  hypoglossal  canal 
Network  of  oval  foramen 
Venous  plexus  of  internal  carotid 

Cerebral  veins 

Superior  cerebral  veins 

Middle  cerebral  vein 

Inferior  cerebral  veins 

Superior  cerebellar  veins 

Inferior  cerebellar  veins 

Internal  cerebral  veins  (O.  T.  veins 
of  Galen) 

Large  vein  of  cerebrum  (O.  T.  vena 
magna  Galeni) 

Vein  of  septum  pellucidum 

Terminal  vein  (O.  T.  vein  of  the  cor- 
pus striatum) 

Basal  vein  (O.  T.  basilar  vein) 

Chorioid  vein 

Ophthalmomeningeal  vein 

Superior  ophthalmic  vein 

Nasofrontal  vein 
Anterior  ethmoidal  vein 
Posterior  ethmoidal  vein 

Lacrimal  vein 
Muscular  veins 
Vortex  veins 
Posterior  ciliary  veins 
Anterior  ciliary  veins 
Central  vein  of  retina 
Episcleral  veins 
Palpebral  veins 
Anterior  conjunctival  veins 
Posterior  conjunctival  veins 
Inferior  ophthalmic  vein 

Common  facial  vein 
Anterior  facial  vein 

Angular  vein 
Frontal  veins 
Supraorbital  vein 
Superior  palpebral  veins 
External  nasal  veins 
Inferior  palpebral  veins 
Vein  of  upper  lip 
Vein  of  lower  lip 
Masseteric  veins 
Anterior  parotid  veins 
Palatine  vein 
Submental  vein 

Posterior  facial  vein 

Superficial  temporal  veins 
Anterior  auricular  veins 
Posterior  parotid  veins 
Articular  mandibular  veins 
Tympanic  veins 
Stylomastoid  vein 
Transverse  vein  of  face 
Middle  temporal  vein 
Pterygoid  plexus 
Middle  meningeal  veins 
Deep  temporal  veins 
Superior  thyreoid  vein 

External  jugular  vein 

Occipital  vein 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

V.  auricularis  posterior 
V.  jugularis  anterior 
Arcus  venosus  juguli 
(V.  mediana  colli) 
V.  transversa  scapulae 

V.  subclavia 

V.  thoracoacromialis 

Vv.  transversae  colli 

V.  axillaris 
V.  thoracalis  lateralis 

Vv.  costoaxillares 

Vv.  thoracoepigastricae 

Plexus  venosus  mamillae 

Vv.  brachiales 

Vv.  radiales 

Vv.  ulnares 

V.  cephalica 

V.  cephalica  accessoria 
V.  basilica 
V.  mediana  cubiti 

(V.  mediana  antibrachii) 

(V.  mediana  basilica) 

(V.  mediana  cephalica) 
Rete  venosum  dorsale  manus 
Vv.  intercapitulares 
Arcus  volaris  venosus  superficialis 
Arcus  volaris  venosus  profundus 
Vv.  digitales  volares  communes 
Vv.  metacarpeae  dorsales 
Vv.  metacarpeae  volares 
Vv.  digitales  volares  propriae 
Arcus  venosi  digitales 

V.  azygos 

V.  hemiazygos 

V.  hemiazygos  accessoria 

Vv.  intercostales 

Ramus  dorsalis 

Ramus  spinalis 
Vv.  oesophageae 
Vv.  bronchiales  posteriores 
V.  lumbalis  ascendens 
Vv.  basivertebrales 
Plexus  venosi  vertebrales  extern! 

Plexus  venosi  vertebrales  anteriores 

Plexus  venosi  vertebrales  posteriores 
Plexus  venosi  vertebrales  interni 

Retia  venosa  vertebrarum 
Sinus  vertebrales  longitudinales 
Vv.  intervertebrals 
Vv.  spinales  externae  anteriores 
Vv.  spinales  externae  posteriores 
Vv.  spinales  internae 

V.  cava  inferior 

Radices   parietales 
V.  phrenica  inferior 
Vv.  lumbales 

Radices  viscerales 
Vv.  hepaticae 
Vv.  renales 
Vv.  suprarenales 
V.  spermatica: 
V.  testicularis 
V.  ovarica 
Plexus  pampiniformis 

Vena  portae 

V.  coronaria  ventriculi 
V.  mesenterica  superior 

Vv.  intestinales 

V.  gastroepiploica  dextra 

Vv.  pancreaticae 

V.  ileocolica 

Vv.  colicae  dextrae 

V.  colica  media 

Vv.  pancreaticoduodenales 



Posterior  auricular  vein 
Anterior  jugular  vein 
Venous  jugular  arch 
Median  vein  of  neck 
Transverse    vein    of    scapula    (O.   T. 
suprascapular  vein) 

Subclavian  vein 

Thoraco-acromial  vein  (O.  T.  acro- 
miothoracic,  or  thoracic  axis) 

Transverse  veins  of  neck  (O.  T. 
transversalis  colli) 

Axillary  vein 

Lateral    thoracic    vein    (O.  T.  long 

Costo-axillary  veins 
Thoraco-epigastric  veins 
Venous  plexus  of  mammary  gland 
Brachial  veins 
Radial  veins 
Ulnar  veins 
Cephalic  vein 

Accessory  cephalic  vein 
Basilic  vein 
Median  vein  of  elbow 

Median  vein  of  forearm 

Median  basilic  vein 

Median  cephalic  vein 
Dorsal  venous  network  of  hand 
Intercapitular  veins 
Superficial  venous  volar  arch 
Deep  venous  volar  arch 
Common  volar  digital  veins 
Dorsal  metacarpal  veins 
Volar  metacarpal  veins 
Volar  digital  veins  proper 
Venous  arches  of  digits 

Azygos  vein  (O.  T.  vena  azygos 

Hemiazygos   vein    (O.    T.    v.    azygos 
minor  inferior) 

Accessory  hemiazygos  vein  (O.  T.  v. 

azygos  minor  superior) 
Intercostal  veins 

Dorsal  ramus 

Spinal  ramus 
Oesophageal  veins 
Posterior  bronchial  veins 
Ascending  lumbar  vein 
Basivertebral  veins 
External    vertebral    venous    plexuses 

Anterior  vertebral  venous   plexuses 

Posterior  vertebral  venous  plexuses 
Internal  vertebral  venous  plexuses 

Venous  networks  of  the  vertebrae 
Longitudinal  vertebral  sinuses 
Intervertebral  veins 
Anterior  external  spinal  veins 
Posterior  external  spinal  veins 
Internal  spinal  veins 

Inferior  vena  cava 

Parietal     radicals 
Inferior  phrenic  vein 
Lumbar  veins 

Visceral    radicals 
Hepatic  veins 
Renal  veins 
Suprarenal  veins 
Spermatic  vein 
Testicular  vpin 
Ovarian  vein 
Pampiniform  plexus 

Portal  vein 

Coronary  vein  of  stomach 
Superior  mesenteric  vein 

Intestinal  veins 

Right  gastro-epiploic  vein 

Pancreatic  veins 

Ileocolic  vein 

Right  colic  veins 

Middle  colic  vein  . 

Pancreaticoduodenal  veins 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Vv.  duodenales 
V.  mesenterica  inferior 

V.  colica  sinistra 

Vv.  sigmoideae 

V.  haemorrhoidalis  superior 
V.  lienalis 

Vv.  gastricae  breves 

V.  gastroepiploica  sinistra 

V.  cystica 
Vena  umhilicalis 
Ductus  venosus  [Arantii] 
Vv.  parumbilicales  [Sappeyi] 

Vena  iliaca  communis 

V.  sacralis  media 

V.  hypogastrica 

Vv.  glutaeae  superiores 

Vv.  glutaeae  inferiores 

Vv.  obturatoriae 

Vv.  sacrales  laterales 

V.  iliolumbalis 

Plexus  sacralis  anterior 

Plexus  haemorrhoidalis 

Plexus  vesicalis 

Plexus  pudendalis 

V.  dorsalis  penis 

Vv.  profundae  penis 

V.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

Vv.  profundae  clitoridis 

Vv.  uterinae 

Plexus  uterovaginalis 

V.  haemorrhoidalis  media 

Vv.  haemorrhoidales  inferiores 

Vv.  scrotales  posteriores 

V.  iliaca  externa 

V.  epigastrica  inferior    • 

V.  circumflexa  ilium  profunda 

V.  femoralis 

Vv.  dorsales  penis  subcutaneae 

Vv.  scrotales  anteriores 

Vv.  pudendae  externae 

V.  epigastrica  superficialis 

V.  saphena  magna 

V.  saphena  accessoria 

V.  circumflexa  ilium  superficialis 

Vv.  circumflexae  femoris  mediales 

Vv.  circumflexae  femoris  laterales 

Vv.  comitantes 

Vv.  profundae  femoris 

Vv.  perforantes 

V.  saphena  parva 

V.  femoropoplitea 
Vv.  peronaeae 
Vv.  popliteae 
Vv.  tibiales  posteriores 
Vv.  tibiales  anteriores 
Rete  venosum  dorsale  pedis 
Arcus  venosus  dorsalis  pedis 
Vv.  digitales  communes  pedis 
Vv.  metatarseae  dorsales  pedis 
Vv.  intercapitulares 
Rete  venosum  plantare 
Arcus  venosus  plantaris 
Vv.  metatarseae  plantares 
Vv.  digitales  pedis  dorsales 
Vv.  digitales  plantares 

Systema  lymphaticum 

Vasa  lymphatica 

Vasa  lymphatick  superficialia 

Vasa  lymphatica  profunda 
Truncus  jugularis 



Duodenal  veins 
Inferior  mesenteric  vein 

Left  colic  vein 

Sigmoid  veins 

Superior  hemorrhoidal  vein 
Splenic  vein 

Short  gastric  veins 

Left  gastro-epiploic  vein 

Cystic  vein 
Umbilical  vein 
Venous  duct  of  Arantius 
Paraumbilical  veins 

Common  iliac  vein 

Middle  sacral  vein 

Hypogastric   vein   (0.   T.    internal 
iliac  vein) 

Superior  gluteal  veins' 
Inferior  gluteal  veins 
Obturator  veins 
Lateral  sacral  veins 
IHolumbar  vein 
Anterior  sacral  plexus 
Hemorrhoidal  plexus 
Vesical  plexus 
Pundendal  plexus 
Dorsal  vein  of  penis 
Deep  veins  of  penis 
Dorsal  veins  of  clitoris 
Deep  veins  of  clitoris 
Uterine  veins 
Uterovaginal  plexus 
Middle  hemorrhoidal  vein 
Inferior  hemorrhoidal  veins 
Posterior  scrotal  veins 

External  iliac  veins 

Inferior   epigastric    vein    (O.  T.  deep 

Deep  circumflex  iliac  vein 
Femoral  vein 

Subcutaneous  dorsal  veins  of  penis 
Anterior  scrotal  veins 
External  pundenal  veins 
Superficial  epigastric  veins 
Large  saphenous  vein  (O.  T.  internal 

Accessory  saphenous  vein 
Superficial  circumflex  iliac  vein 
Medial  circumflex  veins  of  thigh 
Lateral  circumflex  veins  of  thigh 
Accompanying  veins 
Deep  veins  of  thigh 
Perforating  veins 

Small  saphenous  vein  (O.  T.  external 
saphenous  vein) 

Femoropopliteal  vein 
Peroneal  veins 
Popliteal  veins 
Posterior  tibial  veins 
Anterior  tibial  veins 
Dorsal  venous  network  of  foot 
Dorsal  venous  arch  of  foot 
Common  digital  veins  of  foot 
Dorsal  metatarsal  veins  of  foot 
Intercapitular  veins 
Plantar  venous  network 
Plantar  venous  arch 
Plantar  metatarsal  veins 
Dorsal  digital  veins  of  foot 
Plantar  digital  veins 

Lymphatic  system 

Lymphatic  vessels 

Superficial  lymphatic  vessel 

Deep  lymphatic  vessel 
Jugular  trunk 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Tnincus  subclavius 

Truncus  bronchomediastinalis  dexter 

Ductus  lymphaticus  dexter 

Ductus  thoracicus 

Trunci  lumbales 
Truncus  intestinalis 
Cisterna  chyli 


Vasa  afferentia 

Vasa  efferentia 

Substantia  corticalis 

Substantia  meduUaris 


Lymphoglandulae  occipitales 

"      auriculares  posteriores 

''      auriculares  anteriores 

"      submaxillares 

"      faciales  pr'ofundae 

*'      parotideae 

"      cervicales  superficiales 

"      cervicales  profundae  superiores 

"      cervicales  profundae  inferiores 

"      linguales 

"      axillares 

"      subscapularee 

"      pectorales 

"      epigastricae 

"      cubitales  superficiales 

"      cubitales  profundae 

"      tracheales 

Lymphoglandulae  bronchiales 

"  intercostales 

"  mediastinales  posteriores 

"  mediastinales  anteriores 

"  sternales 

"  iliacae 

"  lumbales 

"  coeliacae 

*'  gastricae  superiores 

"  gastricae  inferiores 

"  hepaticae 

*'  pancreaticolienales 

"  mesentericae 

"  mesocolicae 

"  hypogastricae 

"  sacrales 

"  inguinales 

"  subinguinales  superficiales 

"  subinguinales  profundae 

"  popliteae 
(Lymphoglandula  tibialis  anterior) 

Plexus  lymphatici 

Plexus  jugularis 
Plexus  axillaris 
Plexus  mammarius 
Plexus  lumbalis 
Plexus  aorticus 
Plexus  sacralis  medius 
Plexus  hypogastricus 
Plexus  coeUacus 
Plexus  iliacus  externus 
Plexus  inguinalis 



Subclavian  trunk 

Right  bronchomediastinal  trunk 

Right  lymphatic  trunk 

Thoracic  duct 

Lumbar  trunks 
Intestinal  trunk 

Chyle-cistern    (O.  T.    receptaculum 

Lymph  glands 

Afferent  vessels 
Efferent  vessels 
Cortical  substance 
Medullary  substance 

Occipital  lymph  glands 
Posterior  auricular  lymph  glands 
Anterior  auricular  lymph  glands 
Submaxillary  lymph  glands 
Deep  facial  lymph  glands 
Parotid  lymph  glands 
Superficial  cervical  lymph  glands 
Upper  deep  cervical  lymph  glands 
Lower  deep  cervical  lymph  glands 
Lingual  lymph  glands 
Axillary  lymph  glands 
Subscapular  lymph  glands 
Pectoral  lymph  glands 
Epigastric  lymph  glands 
Superficial  lymph  glands  of  elbow 
Deep  lymph  glands  of  elbow 
Tracheal  lymph  glands 

Bronchial  lymph  glands 
Intercostal  lymph  glands 
Posterior  mediastinal  lymph  glands 
Anterior  mediastinal  lymph  glands 
Sternal  lymph  glands 
Iliac  lymph  glands 
Lumbar  lymph  glands 
Coeliac  lymph  glands 
Superior  gastric  lymph  glands 
Inferior  gastric  lymph  glands 
Hepatic  lymph  glands 
Pancreaticolienal  lymph  glands 
Mesenteric  lymph  glands 
Mesocolic  lymph  glands 
Hypogastric  lymph  glands 
Sacral  lymph  glands 
Inguinal  lymph  glands 
Superficial  subinguinal  lymph  glands 
Deep  subinguinal  lymph  glands 
Popliteal  lymph  glands 
Anterior  tibial  lymph  glands 

Lymphatic  plexuses 

Jugular  plexus 
Axillary  plexus 
Mammary  plexus 
Lumbar  plexus 
Aortic  plexus 
Middle  sacral  plexus 
Hypogastric  plexus 
Coeliac  plexus 
External  iliac  plexus 
Inguinal  plexus 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Substantia  alba 
Substantia  grisea 

Substantia  gelatinosa 
Taenia  telarum 
Ependyma  ventriculorum 
Sulcus  limitans  ventriculorum 
Nuclei  nervorum  cerebralium 

Nuclei  originis 
Nuclei  terminales    . 

Ramus  communicans 

Ramus  anastomoticus 

Ramus  muscularis 

Nervus  cutaneus 

Nervus  articularis 

Plexus  nervorum  spinalium 

Systema  nervorum  centrale 

Medulla  spinalis 

Pars  cervicalis 
Intumescentia  cervicalis 
Pars  thoracalis 
Pars  lumbalis 
Intumescentia  lumbalis 
Conus  meduUaris 
Filum  terminale 
Ventriculus  terminalis 
Fissura  mediana  anterior 
Sulcus  medianus  posterior 
Sulcus  lateralis  anterior 
Sulcus  lateralis  posterior 
Sulcus  intermedins  posterior 

Sectiones  meduUae  spinalis 
Canalis  centralis 
Substantia  grisea  centralis 
Commissura  anterior  alba 
Commissura  anterior  grisea 
Commissura  posterior 
Columnae  griseae: 
Columna  anterior 
Columna  lateralis 
Columna  posterior 

Cervix  columnae  posterioris 
Apex  columnae  posterioris 
Substantia  gelatinosa  [Rolandi] 
Nucleus  dorsalis  [Stillingi,  Clarkii] 

(Sulcus  intermedins  anterior) 
Funiculi  medullae  spinalis 

Funiculus  anterior 

Funiculus  lateralis 

Funiculus  posterior 

Formatio  reticularis 
Funiculus  anterior 

Fasciculus    cerebrospinalis    anterior 
[pyramidalis  anterior] 




White  matter 
Gray  matter 

Gelatinous  substance 
Band  of  the  telae  ("web") 
Ependyma  ("  cover")  of  ventricles 
JLimiting  sulcus  of  the  ventricules 
Nuclei  of  the  cerebral  nerves 

Nuclei  of  origin 

Communicating  ramus 
Anastomotic  ramus 
Muscular  ramus 
Cutaneous  nerve 
Articular  nerve 
Plexus  of  spinal  nerves 

Central  nervous  system 

Spinal  cord 

Cervical  portion 

Cervical  enlargement 

Thoracic  portion  (O.  T.  dorsal  part) 

Lumbar  portion 

Lumbar  enlargement 

Medullary  cone 

Terminal  thread 

(Swelling  due  to)  terminal  ventricle 

Anterior  median  fissure 

Posterior  median  sulcus 

Anterior  lateral  sulcus 

Posterior  lateral  sulcus 

Posterior  intermediate  sulcus   (O.  T. 

paramedian  furrow) 
Anterior  intermediate  sulcus 
Funiculi  of  spinal  cord 

Anterior  funiculus 

Lateral  funiculus 

Posterior  funiculus 

Transverse  sections  of  the  spinal  cord 
Central  canal 
Central  gray  matter 
Anterior  white  commissure 
Anterior  gray  commissure 
Posterior  commissure 
Gray  columns 

Anterior  column  (O.  T.  anterior  horn) 
Lateral  column  (O.  T.  lateral  horn) 
Posterior    column     (O.   T.    posterior 
Neck  of  posterior  column 
Apex  of  posterior  column 
Gelatinous  substance  of  Rolando 
Dorsal  nucleus    (O.  T.  Clark's   col- 
Reticular  formation 
Anterior  funiculus 

Anterior  cerebrospinal  or  pyrami- 
dal fasciculus  (O.  T.  direct  pyr- 
amidal tract) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Fasciculus  anterior  proprius  [Flech- 

Funiculus  lateralis 

Fasciculus    cerebrospinalis    lateralis 

[pyramidalis  lateralis] 

Fasciculus  cerebellospinalis 

Fasciculus     anterolateralis      super- 

ficialis  [Gowersi] 
Fasciculus  lateralis  proprius  [Flech- 

Funiculus  posterior 

Fasciculus  gracilis  [Golli] 

Fasciculus  cuneatus  [Burdachi] 




Medulla   oblongata 
Fissura  mediana  posterior 
Fissura  mediana  anterior 
Foramen  caecum 
Pyramis  [medullae  oblongatae] 
Decussatio  pyramidum 
Sulcus  lateralis  anterior 
Sulcus  lateralis  posterior 
Corpus  restiforme 

Funiculus  lateralis 
Funiculus  cuneatus 

Tuberculum  cinereum 
Funiculus  gracilis 

Fibrae  arcuatae  externae 

Sectiones  medullae  oblongatae 


Stratum  nucleare 
Nucleus  n.  hypoglossi 
Nucleus  ambiguus 
Nucleus  alae  cinereae 

Tractus  solitarius 

Nucleus  tractus  solitarii 
Tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 

Nucleus  tractus  spinalis  n.   trigemini 

Nucleus  funiculi  gracilis 

Nucleus  funiculi  cuneati 

Nuclei  laterales 

Nucleus  olivaris  inferior 

Hilus  nuclei  olivaris 

Nucleus  olivaris  accessorius  medialis 

Nucleus  olivaris  accessorius  dorsalis 

Nuclei  arcuati 

Fibrae  arcuatae  internae 

Substantia  reticularis  grisea 

Substantia  reticularis  alba 

Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medialis 

Stratum  interolivare  lemnisci 
Decussatio  lemniscorum 

Corpus  restiforme 



Proper   anterior   fasciculus    (O.    T. 
anterior  ground  bundle) 
Lateral  funiculus 

Lateral  cerebrospinal  or  pyramidal 
fasciculus  (O.  T.  crossed  pyrami- 
dal tract) 

Cerebellospinal  fasciculus  (O.  T. 
direct  cerebellar  tract  of  Flechsig) 

Superficial    anterolateral    fasciculus 

(O.  T.  Gowers'  tract) 
Proper    lateral    fasciculus    (O.    T. 

lateral  ground  bundle) 
Posterior  funiculus 

Slender   fasciculus    (O.   T.   column 

or  tract  of  Goll) 
Wedge-shaped    fasciculus    (O.    T. 

column  or  tract  of  Burdach) 


Lozenge-shaped  brain 

Medullary  or  after-brain 

Oblong    medulla 

Posterior  median  fissure 

Anterior  median  fissure 

Blind  foramen 

Pyramid  of  medulla  oblongata 

Decussation  of  pyramids 

Anterior  lateral  sulcus 

Posterior  lateral  sulcus 

Olive  (O.  T.  olivary  eminence) 

Restiform  body   (O.  T.  inferior  cere- 
bellar peduncle) 

Lateral  funiculus 

Cuneate   funiculus    (O.  T.  column   of 

Gray  or  ashen  tubercle 

Slender    funiculus    (O.  T.  column    of 

External  arcuate  fibres   (O.   T.  super- 
ficial arcuate  fibres 

Transverse  sections  of  medulla 
Median  raphe 
Nuclear  layer 

Nucleus  of  hypoglossal  nerve 
Ambiguous  nucleus 
Nucleus  of  ala  cinerea 


Solitary    tract    (O.      ' 

Nucleus  of  solitary  tract 
Spinal  tract  of  trigeminal  nerve  (O.  T. 

ascending  root  of  trigeminal  nerve) 
Nucleus  of  spinal  tract  of  trigeminal 

Nucleus  of  slender  funiculus   (O.  T. 

nucleus  of  Goll's  column) 
Nucleus    of    wedge-shaped    funiculus 

(O.  T.  nucleus  of  Burdach's  column) 
Lateral  nuclei 
Inferior  olivary  nucleus 
Hilus  of  olivary  nucleus 
Medial  accessory  olivary  nucleus 
Dorsal  accessory  olivary  nucleus 
Arcuate  nuclei 
Internal  arcuate  fibres 
Gray  reticular  substance 
White  reticular  substance 
Medial  longitudinal  fasciculus  (O.  T. 

posterior  longitudinal  bundle) 
Interolivary  layer  of  lemniscus 
Decussation  of  lemniscus  or  fillet  (O. 

T.    sensory  decussation  of  medulla 

Restiform    body     (O.      T.      inferior 

cerebellar  peduncle) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Fasciculi  corporis  restiformis 
Fibrae  cerebelloolivares 
Fasciculi  pyramidales 
Fibrae  arcuatae  externae 

Ventriculus     quartus 

Fossa  rhomboidea 

Pars      inferior     fossae     rhomboideae 

[Calamus  scriptorius] 
Pars    intermedia    fossae    rhomboideae 

Recessus     lateralis     fossae     rhom- 
Pars  superior  fossae  rhomboideae 
Sulcus  limitans  [fossae  rhomboideae] 

Fovea  inferior 

Fovea  superior 
Trigonum  n.  hypoglossi 
Striae  medullares 
Eminentia  medialis 

Colliculus  facialis 
Ala  cinerea 
Area  acustica 

Locus  caeruleus 
Tegmen  ventriculi  quarti 
Velum  medullare  posterius 
Taenia  ventriculi  quarti 

Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 
(Apertura    medialis    ventriculi    quarti 

[Foramen  Magendii]) 
(Apertura   lateralis   ventriculi    quarti) 


Pons   [Varolii] 
Sulcus  basilaris 
Fasciculus  obliquus  [pontis] 
(Fila  lateralia  pontis) 
Brachium  pontis 

Sectiones  pontis 

Pars   dorsalis   pontis 


Nucleus  n.  abducentis 

Nuclei  motorii  n.  trigemini 

Radix     descendens     [mesencephalica] 

n.  trigemini 
Tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 
Nucleus  tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 

Nucleus  n.  facialis 
Radix  n.  facialis 

Pars  prima 

Genu  [internum] 

Pars  secunda 
Nuclei  n.  acustici 

Nuclei  n.  cochlearis 

Nuclei  n.  vestibularis 
Nucleus  olivaris  superior 
Nucleus  lemnisci  lateralis 
Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medialis 

Formatio  reticularis 

Corpus  trapezoideum 


Lemniscus  medialis  [sensitivus] 
Lemniscus  lateralis  [acusticus] 

Pars      basilaris      pontis 

Fibrae  pontis  profundae 

Fasciculi  longitudinales  [pyramidales] 

Nuclei  pontis 

Fibrae  pontis  superficiales 


Gyri  cerebelli 
Sulci  cerebelli 
Vallecula  cerebelli 
Incisura  cerebelli  anterior 

Incisura  cerebelli  posterior 



Fasciculi  of  restiform  body 
Cerebello-olivary  fibres 
Pyramidal  fasciculi 
External  arcuate  fibres 

Fourth    ventricle 

Rhomboid  fossa 

Inferior  part  of  rhomboid  fossa 

Writing  pen 
Intermediate  part  of  rhomboid  fossa 

Lateral  recess  of  rhomboid  fossa 

Superior  part  of  rhomboid  fossa 
Limiting  groove  of  rhomboid  fossa 

Inferior  pit 

Superior  pit 
Trigone  of  hypoglossal  nerve 
Medullary  striae 
Medial  eminence   (O.     T.     eminentia 

Facial  hillock 

Ash-like  wing  (O.    T.    trigonum  vagi) 
Acoustic     area      (O.      T.      trigonum 

Blue  place 

Roof  of  fourth  ventricle 
Posterior  medullary  velum 
Taenia   of   fourth   ventricle:   junction 
of   epithelial    part    of    roof    with 
compact  nerve  substance 

Epithelial  chorioid  layer 
Median  aperture    of    fourth    ventricle 

(foramen  of  Magendie) 
Lateral  aperture  of  fourth  ventricle 
Fastigium:  "summit  of  roof" 


Pons     ("bridge")    Varolii 

Basilar  groove 
Oblique  bundle  of  pons 
Lateral  fibres  of  pons 
Brachium  ("arm")  of  pons 

Sections  of  the  pons 

Dorsal     part    of    pons 

Median  raphe 

Nucleus  of  the  abducent  nerve  (O.  T. 

nucleus  of  sixth  nerve) 
Motor  nuclei  of  the  trigeminal  nerve 
Descending  or  mesencephalic  root  of 

trigeminal  nerve 
Spinal  tract  of  trigeminal  nerve 
Nucleus  of  spinal  tract  of  trigeminal 

Nucleus  of  facial  nerve 
Root  of  facial  nerve 

First  part 

Internal  knee 

Second  part 
Nuclei     of    acoustic     nerve     (O.    T. 
auditory  nucleus) 

Nuclei  of  cochlear  nerve 

Nuclei  of  vestibular  nerve 
Superior  olivary  nucleus 
Nucleus  of  lateral  lemniscus 
Medial  longitudinal  fasciculus  (O.  T. 

posterior  longitudinal  bundle) 
Reticular  formation 
Trapezoid  body 
Fillet  or  lemniscus 

Medial  (sensory)  fillet 

Lateral  (acoustic)  fillet 
Basilar   part   of   pons 
Deep  fibres  of  pons 
Longitudinal  pyramidal  fasciculi 
Nuclei  of  pons 
Superficial  fibres  of  pons 

Cerebellum,    or    small    brain 

Convolutions  of  cerebellum 

Sulci  of  cerebellum 

Cerebellar  vallecula 

Anterior  notch  of  cerebellum    (O.  T. 

semilunar  notch) 
Posterior  notch  of  cerebellum  (O.  T. 

marsupial  notch) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Sulcus  horizontalis  cerebelli 

Fissura  transversa  cerebelli 


Lingula  cerebelli 

Vincula  lingulae  cerebelli 
Lobulus  centralis 


Folium  vermis 

Tuber  vermis 

Pyramis  [vermis] 

Uvula  [vermis] 


Hemisphaerium  cerebelli 

Facies  superior 

Ala  lobuli  centralis 
Lobulus  quadrangularis 

Pars  anterior 
Pars  posterior 
Lobulus  semilunaris  superior 

Facies  inferior 

Lobulus  semilunaris  inferior 

Lobulus  gracilis 
Lobulus  biventer 
Tonsilla  cerebelli 

(Flocculi  secondarii) 
Pedunculus  flocculi 
Nidus  avis 

Sectiones  cerebelli 

Corpus  meduUare 
Laminae  meduUares 
Arbor  vitae 
Substantia  corticalis 

[Lamina  basalis] 

[Stratum  cinereum]. 

[Stratum  gangliosum] 

[Stratum  granulosum] 
Nucleus  dentatus 
Hilus  nuclei  dentati 
Nucleus  fastigii 
Nucleus  globosus 
Nucleus  emboliformis 

Capsula  nuclei  dentati 

Isthmus  rhombencephali 

Brachium  conjunctivum  [cerebelli] 


Lemniscus  lateralis 

Lemniscus  medialis 

Trigonum  lemnisci 
Velum  medullare  anterius 

Frenulum  veli  medullaris  anterioris 

Sectiones  isthmi 
[vide  Pedunculus  cerebri] 
Ganglion  interpedunculare 
Nucleus  n.  trochlearis 

Facies  convexa  cerebri 
Facies  medialis  cerebri 
Basis  cerebri 



[Facies   inferior] 
Fossa  interpeduncularis  [Tarini] 



Horizontal  sulcus  of  cerebellum  (O.  T. 

great  horizontal  fissure) 
Transverse  fissure  of  cerebellum 
Vermis    ("worm") 
Lingua  ("tongue")  of  cerebellum 

Vincula  of  the  lingua 
Central  lobule  (O.  T.  lobus  centralis) 
Monticulus  ("little  mountain") 

Culmen  ("summit") 

Declive  ("slope  or  descent") 
Folium  of  vermis  ("leaflet  of  worm") 

(O.  T.  folium  cacuminis) 
Tuber  of  vermis  (O.  T.  tuber  valvulus) 
Pyramid  of  vermis 
Uvula  of  vermis 

Hemisphere    of   cerebellum 
Superior  surface 

Wing  of  central  lobule 

Quadrangular  lobule  (O.  T.  quad- 
rate lobule) 

Anterior  part 

Posterior  part 

Superior   semilunar   lobule    (O.    T. 
posterior  crescentic  lobule) 
Inferior  surface 

Inferior  semilunar  lobule  (O.  T.  pos- 
tero-inferior  lobule) 

Slender  lobule 

Biventral  lobule 

Tonsil  of  cerebellum 

Flocculus  ("  w^ool-tuf t-like  body") 

Secondary  flocculi 

Peduncle  of  flocculus 
Nidus  avis  ("  bird's  nest  ") 

Sections  of  cerebellum 

Medullary  body 
Medullary  laminae 
Arbor  vitae  ("  tree  of  life  ") 
Cortical  substance 

Basal  lamina 

Gray  layer 

Ganglion-cell  layer 

Granular  layer 
Dentate  nucleus 
Hilus  of  dentate  nucleus 
Nucleus  of  fastigium  ("roof") 
Spherical  nucleus 
Emboliform  nucleus  (O.  T.  cork  or 

Capsule  of  dentate  nucleus 

Isthmus   of   rhombencephalon 

Brachium  conjunctivum   {"  connecting 

arm")  of  cerebellum  (O.  T.  superior 

cerebellar  peduncle) 
Fillet  or  ribbon 

Lateral  fillet 

Medial  fillet  (O.  T.  ribbon  of  Reil) 

Trigone  of  fillet 
Anterior  meduHary  velum  (O.  T.  valve 

of  Vieussens) 
Frenulum   ("  check-rein  ")  of  anterior 

medullary  velum) 

Sections  of  isthmus 

[See  Cerebral  peduncle] 
Interpeduncular  ganglion 
Nucleus  of  trochlear  nerve 

Cerebrum  (large  brain) 

Convex  surface  of  cerebrum 
Medial  surface  of  cerebrum 
Base  of  cerebrum 


Inferior    surface 
Interpeduncular  fossa 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Recessus  anterior 
Recessus  posterior 
Substantia  perforata  posterior 

Pedunculus     cerebri 
Aquaeductus  cerebri  [Sylvii] 

Sulcus  lateralis 
Sulcus  n.  oculomotorii 

Sectiones  pedunculi  cerebri 

Stratum  griseum  centrale 
Formatio  reticularis 
Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medialis 

Radix  descendens  n.  trigemini 
Nucleus   radicis    descendentis    n.  tri- 
Nucleus  n.  oculomotorii 

Nuclei  tegmenti 

Nucleus  ruber 
Decussationes  tegmentorum 

Decussatio  brachii  conjunctivi 

Lemniscus  lateralis 
Lemniscus  medialis 
Substantia   nigra 
Basis   pedunculi 

Corpora     quadrigemina 

Lamina  quadrigemina 
Colliculus  superior 

Colliculus  inferior 

Brachium  quadrigeminum  superius 
Brachium  quadrigeminum  inferius 
Sectiones  corporum  quadrigeminorum 

Stratum  zonale 

Stratum  griseum  coUiculi  superioris 

Nucleus  coUiculi  inferioris 
Stratum  album  profundum 


Ventriculus   tertius 
Aditus  ad  aquaeductum  cerebri 

Commissura  posterior  [cerebri] 
Foramen  interventriculare  [Monroi] 
Sulcus  hypothalamicus  [Monroi] 
Massa  intermedia 

Recessus  opticus 
Recessus  infundibuli 
Commissura  anterior  [cerebri] 
Recessus  triangularis 

Pars    mamillaris    hypothalami 

Corpus  mamillare 

Pars    optica    hypothalami 

Tuber  cinereum 



Lobus  anterior 

Lobus  posterior 
Tractus  opticus 

Radix  medialis 

Radix  lateralis 
Chiasma  opticum 
Lamina  terminalis 

Sectiones  hypothalami 

Nucleus       hypothalamicus       [Corpus 

Pars  grisea  hypothalami 
Commissura  superior  [Meynerti] 
Commissura  inferior  [Guddeni] 
Nuclei  corporis  mamillaris 



Anterior  recess 
Posterior  recess 
Posterior  perforated  substance 

Peduncle     of     cerebrum 

(O.    T.    crus    cerebri) 

Aqueduct  of  cerebrum  (O.  T.   iter  e 

tertio  ad  quartum  ventriculum) 
Lateral  sulcus 
Sulcus  of  oculomotor  nerve 

Sections  of  cerebral  peduncle 

Tegmentum    ("cover") 

Central  gray  layer 

Reticular  formation 

Medial  longitudinal  fasciculus  (O.  T 
posterior  longitudinal  bundle) 

Descending  root  of  trigeminal  nerve 

Nucleus  of  descending  root  of  trigemi- 
nal nerve 

Nucleus  of  oculomotor  nerve  (O.  T.  nu- 
cleus of  III.  nerve) 

Nuclei  of  tegmentum 
Red  nucleus 

Decussations  of  tegmenta 

Decussation  of   brachium  conjunc- 

Lateral  fillet 

Medial  fillet 

Black    substance 

Base    of    peduncle 

Quadrigeminal    bodies  (O. 

T.  optic  lobes) 
Quadrigeminal  layer 
Superior  hillock  (O.  T.  anterior  body 

or  nates) 
Inferior  hillock  (O.  T.  posterior  body 

or  testis) 
Superior  quadrigeminal  braChium 
Inferior  quadrigeminal  brachium 

Sections  of  quadrigeminal  bodies 
Zonal  layer 
Gray  layer  of  superior  coUiculus 

Nucleus  of  inferior  coUiculus 
Deep  white  layer 


Third   ventricle 

Entrance  to  the  aqueduct  of  the  cere- 

Posterior  commissure  of  the  cerebrum 

Interventricular  foramen  of  Monroe 

Hypothalamic  sulcus  of  Monroe 

Intermediate  mass  (O.  T.  middle,  or 
soft,  or  gray,  commissure) 

Optic  recess 

Recess  of  infundibulum 

Anterior  commissure  of  cerebrum 

Triangular  recess 

H)rpothalamus  (0.  T.  subthalamic 

Mammillary  part  of  hy- 

Mammillary  body 

Optic  part  of  hypothala- 

Tuber  cinereum  ("  ash-like  tuber  ") 

Infundibulum  ("  funnel ") 

Hypophysis  (O.  T.  pituitary  body) 
Anterior  lobe 
Posterior  lobe 

Optic  tract 
Medial  root 
Lateral  root 

Optic  chiasm 

Terminal  lamina 

Sections  of  hypothalamus 

Hypothalamic  nucleus,  or  Luy's  body 

(O.  T.  subthalamic  nucleus) 
Gray  part  of  hypothalamus 
Superior  commissure  of  Meynert 
Inferior  commissure  of  v.  Gudden 
Nuclei  of  mammillary  body 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Fasciculus    thalamomamillaris    [Vicq' 

Fasciculi  pedunculomamillares 

Pars  tegmentalis 

Pars  basilaris 
Ansa  peduncularis 

Ansa  lenticularis 

Pedunculus  thalami  inferior 




Tuberculum  anterius  thalami 

Taenia  thalami 

Stria  meduUaris 

Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 
Corpus  geniculatum  mediale 

Corpus  geniculatum  laterale 

Corpus  pineale 

Recessus  pinealis 
Recessus  suprapinealis 

Commissura  habenularum 
Trigonum  habenulae 

Sectiones  thalamencephali 

Stratum  zonale 
Nucleus  anterior  thalami 
Nucleus  medialis  thalami 
Nucleus  lateralis  thalami 
Laminae  meduUares  thalami 
Nucleus  corporis  geniculati  medialis 
Nucleus  corporis  geniculati  lateralis 
Nucleus  habenulae 
Fasciculus  retroflexus  [Meynerti] 



Fissura  longitudinalis  cerebri 
Fissura  transversa  cerebri 
Gyri  cerebri 

Gyri  profundi 

Gyri  transitivi 

Sulci  cerebri 

Impressio  petrosa 

Fossa  cerebri  lateralis  [Sylvii] 

Fissura  cerebri  lateralis  [Sylvii] 

Ramus  posterior 

Ramus  anterior  ascendens 

Ramus  anterior  horizontalis 

Lobi   cerebri 


Gyri  insulae 
Gyrus  longus  insulae 
Gyri  breves  insulae 
Sulcus  circularis  [Reili] 


Pars  frontalis 

Pars  parietalis 

Pars  temporalis 
Sulcus  centralis  [Rolandi] 

Gyrus  centralis  anterior 
Gyrus  centralis  posterior 
Lobus   frontalis 
Polus  frontalis 
Sulcus  praecentralis 
Gyrus  frontalis  superior 
Sulcus  frontalis  superior 
Gyrus  frontalis  medius 

Pars  superior 

Pars  inferior 
Sulcus  frontalis  inferior 



Thalamomammillary     fasciculus     (O. 

T.  bundle  of  Vicq  d'Azyr) 
Pedunculomammillary  fasciculi 

Tegmental  part 

Basilar  part 
Peduncular  loop 

Lenticular  loop 

Inferior  peduncle  of  thalamus 

Thalamic  brain 

Thalamus  C  b  e  d  ")  (O.  T.  op- 
tic   thalamus) 

Pulvinar  (''cushion") 

Anterior  tubercle  of  thalamus 

Thalamic  taenia 

Medullary  stria  (O.  T.  stria  fornicis  or 
stria  pinealis) 

Epithelial  chorioid  layer 


Medial  geniculate  body  (O.  T.  internal 
geniculate  body) 

Lateral  geniculate  body  (O.  T.  exter- 
nal geniculate  body) 

Pineal    body    (O.    T.    conarium,     or 

epiphysis  cerebri) 
Pineal  recess 
Suprapineal  recess 
Habenula  C'strap")  (O.  T.  peduncle 

of  the  pineal  body) 
Commissure  of  the  habenula 
Trigone  of  the  habenula  ' 

Sections  of  the  thalamic  brain 
Zonal  layer 

Anterior  nucleus  of  thalamus 
Medial  nucleus  of  thalamus 
Lateral  nucleus  of  thalamus 
Medullary  layers  of  thalamus 
Nucleus  of  medial  geniculate  body 
Nucleus  of  lateral  geniculate  body 
Nucleus  of  habenula 
Retroflex  fasciculus 


Brain    mantle 

Longitudinal  fissure  of  cerebrum 
Transverse  fissure  of  cerebrum 
Convolutions  of  cerebrum 

Deep  convolutions 

Transitional  convolutions  (O.  T.  an- 
nectant  gyri) 
Grooves  of  cerebrum 
Petrosal  impression 
Lateral  fossa  of  cerebrum 
Lateral  fissure  of   cerebrum    (O.  T. 
fissure  of  Sylvius) 

Posterior  ramus 

Ascending  anterior  ramus 

Horizontal  anterior  ramus 
Lobes  of  cerebrum 
Island      (O.     T.     island    of 

Reil,    or    central    lobe) 
Convolutions  of  island 
Long  convolution  of  island 
Short  convolutions  of  island 
Circular  sulcus  of  Reil  (O.  T.  limiting 

sulcus  of  Reil) 
Operculum  ("cover") 

Frontal  part 

Parietal  part 

Temporal  part 
Central  sulcus  of  Rolando  (O.  T.  fis- 
sure of  Rolando) 
Anterior  central  convolution 
Posterior  central  convolution 
Frontal  lobe 
Frontal  pole 
Precentral  sulcus 
Superior  frontal  convolution 
Superior  frontal  sulcus 
Middle  frontal  convolution 

Superior  part 

Inferior  part 
Inferior  frontal  sulcus 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Gyrus  frontalis  inferior 

Pars  opercularis 

Pars  triangularis 

Pars  orbitalis 
Gyrus  rectus 
Sulcus  olfactorius 
Gyri  orbitales 
Sulci  orbitales 
Lobus   temporalis 
Polus  temporalis 
Sulci  temporales  transversi 
Gyri  temporales  transversi 
Gyrus  temporalis  superior 

Sulcus  temporalis  superior 

Gyrus  temporalis  medius 

Sulcus  temporalis  medius 

Gyrus  temporalis  inferior 

Sulcus  temporalis  inferior 

Fissura  collateralis 
Gyrus  fusiformis 

Gyrus  lingualis 

Lobus   occipitalis 

Polus  occipitalis 

Sulcus  occipitalis  transversus 

Gyri  occipitales  superiores 

Sulci  occipitales  superiores 

Gyri  occipitales  laterales 

Sulci  occipitales  laterales 

Lobus   parietalis 

Lobulus  parietalis  superior 

Sulcus  interparietalis 

Lobulus  parietalis  inferior 
Gyrus  supramarginalis 
Gyrus  angularis 

Facies  medialis  hemisphaerii 

Sulcus  corporis  callosi 

Sulcus  cinguli 

Pars  subfrontalis 

Pars  marginalis 
Sulcus  subparietalis 
Fissura  hippocampi 

Gyrus  fornicatus 

Gyrus  cinguli 

Isthmus  gyri  fornicati 
Gyrus  hippocampi 

Uncus  [gyri  hippocampi] 
Substantia  reticularis  alba  [Arnoldi] 
Lobulus  paracentralis 

Fissura  parietooccipitalis 
Fissura  calcarina 

Corpus   callosum 

Splenium  corporis  callosi 

Truncus  corporis  callosi 
Genu  corporis  callosi 
Rostrum  corporis  callosi 

Lamina  rostralis 
Striae  transversae 
Stria  longitudinalis  medialis 
Stria  longitudinalis  lateralis 
Fasciola  cinerea 


Cms  fornicis 



Inferior  frontal  convolution 
Opercular  part 
Triangular  part 
Orbital  part 

Straight  convolution 

Olfactory  sulcus 

Orbital  convolutions 

Orbital  sulci 

Temporal    lobe 

Temporal  pole 

Transverse  temporal  sulci 

Transverse  temporal  convolutions 

Superior  temporal  convolution  (O.  T. 
first  temporal  gyrus) 

Superior  temporal  sulcus  (O.  T.  paral- 
lel sulcus,  or  first  temporal  sulcus) 

Middle  temporal  convolutiqn   (O.   T. 
second  temporal  gyrus) 

Middle  temporal  sulcus  (O.  T.  second 
temporal  sulcus) 

Inferior  temporal  convolution  (O.  T. 
third  temporal  gyrus) 

Inferior  temporal  sulcus    (O.   T.   oc- 
cipitotemporal sulcus) 

Collateral  fissure 

Fusiform  convolution  (O.  T.  occipito- 
temporal convolution) 

Lingual  convolution 

Occipital    lobe 

Occipital  pole 

Transverse  occipital  sulcus 

Superior  occipital  convolutions 

Superior  occipital  sulci 

Lateral  occipital  convolutions 

Lateral  occipital  sulci 

Parietal    lobe 

Superior  parietal  lobule 

Interparietal  sulcus  (O.  T.  intraparietal 
sulcus  of  Turner) 

Inferior  parietal  lobule 

Supramarginal  convolution 

Angular  convolution 

Medial  surface  of  hemisphere 

Sulcus  of  corpus  callosum  (O.  T.  cal- 

losal  sulcus) 
Sulcus  of  cingulum   (O.   T.   callosol- 
marginal  fissure) 
Subfrontal  part 
Marginal  part 
Subparietal  sulcus 
Fissure  of  hippocampus  (O.  T.  dentate 

fissure,  or  fissura  dentata) 
Fornicate  convolution  (O.  T.  limbic  or 
falciform  lobe) 
Convolution  of  cingulum  (O.  T.  cal- 
losal  convolution,  or  gyrus  forni- 
Isthmus  of  fornicate  gyrus 
Convolution  of  hippocampus  (O.  T. 

hippocampal  convolution) 
Hook  of  gyrus  hippocampi 
White  reticular  substance  of  Arnold 
Paracentral  lobule 

Parieto-occipital  fissure 
Calcarine  fissure 
C  uncus  ("  wedge  ") 

Corpus  callosum  (great 
transverse  commissure 
of    cerebrum) 

Splenium  ("  bandage  ")  of  corpus  cal- 

Trunk  of  corpus  callosum  (O.  T.  body) 

Knee  of  corpus  callosum 

Beak  of  corpus  callosum 
Rostral  lamina 

Transverse  striae 

Medial  longitudinal  stria 

Lateral  longitudinal  stria 

Fasciola  cinerea  (''  ash-like  little  ban- 
dage ") 


Crus  of  fornix  (O.  T.  posterior  pillar 
of  fornix) 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Corpus  fornicis 
Taenia  fornicis 
Columna  fornicis 

Pars  libera  columnae  fornicis 
Pars  tecta  columnae  fornicis 
Septum   pellucidum 

Lamina  septi  pellucidi 

Cavum  septi  pellucidi 

Ventriculus   lateralis 

Pars  centralis 
Cornu  anterius 
Cornu  posterius 
Cornu  inferius 
Corpus  striatum 
Nucleus  caudatus 

Caput  nuclei  caudati 

Cauda  nuclei  caudati 
Stria  terminalis 

Lamina  affixa 

Taenia  chorioidea 

Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 

Calcar  avis 

(Bulbus  cornu  posterioris) 
Eminentia  collateralis 
Trigonum  coUaterale 


Fimbria  hippocampi 
Taenia  fimbriae 
Digitationes  hippocampi 

Fascia  dentata  hippocampi 

Commissura  hippocampi 


Sulcus  parolfactorius  anterior 
Pars   anterior   [rhinenc6phali] 

Lobus  olfactorius 

Bulbus  olfactorius 

Tractus  olfactorius 

Trigonum  olfactorium 

Stria  medialis 

Stria  intermedia 
Area  parolfactoria  [Brocae] 
Sulcus  parolfactorius  posterior 
Pars   posterior   [rhinencaphali] 

Gyrus    subcallosus   [Pedunculus    cor- 
poris callosi] 
Substantia  perforata  anterior 
Stria  olfactoria  lateralis 
Limen  insulae 

Sectiones  telencephali 
Substantia  corticalis 
Centrum  semiovale 
Decursus  fibrarum  cerebralium 

Fibrae  arcuatae  cerebri 

Fasciculus  longitudinalis  superior 
Fasciculus  longitudinalis  inferior 
Fasciculus  uncinatus 
Radiatio  corporis  callosi 

Pars  frontalis 

Pars  parietalis 

Pars  temporalis 

Pars  occipitalis  . 

Nucleus  lentiformis 


Globus  pallidus 
Capsula  externa 
Capsula  interna 

Genu  capsulae  internae 



Body  of  fornix 

Taenia  (''ribbon")  of   fornix 
Column  of  fornix  (O.  T.  anterior  pil- 
lar of  fornix) 
Free  part  of  column  of  fornix 
Covered  part  of  column  of  fornix 

Transparent    septum 
Layer  of  septum  pellucidum 
Cavity  of  septum  pellucidum  (O.  T. 
fifth  ventricle) 

Lateral    ventricle 
Central  part 
Anterior  horn 
Posterior  horn 

Inferior  horn  (O.  T.  descending  horn) 
Striate  body 
Caudate  nucleus 

Head  of  caudate  nucleus 

Tail  of  caudate  nucleus 
Terminal  stria  (O.  T.  taenia  semicir- 

Lamina  affixa    {"  fastened  layer  ") 
Chorioid  taenia 
Epithelial  chorioid  layer 
Calcar   avis  ('' cock's  spur ")  (O.    T. 

hippocampus  minor) 
Bulb  of  posterior  horn 
Collateral  eminence 

Collateral  trigone  (O.  T.  trigonum 
Hippocampus    (''  sea-horse  ")    (O.  T. 

hippocampus     major,     cornu     Am- 

monis,  or  Ammon's  horn) 
Fimbria  ("  fringe  ")  of  hippocampus 
Taenia  of  fimbria 
Digitations  of  the  hippocampus  (O.  T. 

pes  hippocampi) 
Dentate  fascia  of  hippocampus  (O.  T. 

gyrus  dentatus) 
Commissure  of  the  hippocampus  (O. 

T.  lyra,  or  lyre  of  David) 
Olfactory    brain 

Anterior  parolfactory  sulcus 
Anterior    part     of     rhinen- 

c  e  p  h  a  1  o  n 
Olfactory  lobe 
Olfactory  bulb 
Olfactory  tract 
Olfactory  trigone 
Medial  stria 
Intermediate  stria 
Parolfactory  area  of  Broca 
Posterior  parolfactory  sulcus 
Posterior    part    of    rhinen- 

c  e  p  h  a  1  o  n 
Subcallosal   convolution    (peduncle   of 
corpus  callosum) 
Anterior  perforated  substance 
Lateral  olfactory  stria 
Threshold  of  island 

Sections  of  endbrain 
Cortical  substance 
Semioval  centre 
Decursus  (''running  down")  of  cerebral 

Arcuate  fibres  of  cerebrum 
Cingulum  ("  girdle  ") 
Superior  longitudinal  fasciculus 
Inferior  longitudinal  fasciculus 
Uncinate  ("hooked")  fasciculus 
Radiation  of  corpus  callosum 
Frontal  part  (forceps  minor) 
Parietal  part 
Temporal  part 
Occipital    part    (O.    T.    forceps 

Tapetum  ("carpet,"  or  "tapestry") 
Lentiform  nucleus  (O.  T.  lenticular  nu- 
Putamen  ("  shell,"  or  "  paring  ") 
Globus  pallidus  ("  pale  sphere  ") 
Claustrum  ("bulwark,"  or  "barrier") 
External  capsule 
Internal  capsule 

Knee  of  internal  capsule 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Pars  frontalis  capsulae  internae 

Pars  occipitalis  capsulae  internae 

Nucleus  amygdalae 
Corona  radiata 

Pars  frontalis 

Pars  parietalis 

Pars  temporalis 

Pars  occipitalis 
Radiatio  corporis  striati 
Radiatio  occipitothalamica 

Commissura  anterior  [cerebri] 

Pars  anterior 

Pars  posterior 


Dura  mater  encephali 
Falx  cerebri 
Tentorium  cerebelli 

Falx  cerebelli 

Diaphragma  sellae 

Foramen  diaphragmatis  [sellae] 

Incisura  tentorii 

Dura  mater  spinalis 

Filum  durae  matris  spinalis 

Cavum  epidurale 

Cavum  subdurale 

Arachnoidea  spinalis 
Arachnoidea  encephali 
Cavum  subarachnoideale 
Cisternae  subarachnoidales 
Cisterna  cerebellomedullaris 

Cisterna  fossae  lateralis  cerebri 

Cisterna  chiasmatis 
Cisterna  interpeduncularis 

Cisterna  venae  magnae  cerebri 
-Granulationes  arachnoidjeales  [Pac- 

Pia  mater  spinalis 

Lig.  denticulatum 

Septum  cervicale  intermedium 

Pia  mater  encephali 

Tela  chorioidea  ventriculi  quarti 

Plexus  chorioideus  ventriculi  quarti 
Tela  chorioidea  ventriculi  tertii 

Plexus  chorioideus  ventriculi  tertii 
Plexus  chorioideus  ventriculi  lateralis 
Glomus  chorioideum 

Systema  nervorum  periphericum 

Nervi  cerebrales 

Nn.  olfactorii 
N.  opticus 

N.  oculomotorius 
Ramus  superior 

Ramus  inferior 

Radix  brevis  ganglii  ciliaris 

N.  trochlearis 
Decussatio  nervorum  trochlearium 



Frontal  part  of  internal  capsule  (O. 
T.  anterior  limb) 

Occipital  part  of  internal  capsule  (O. 
T.  posterior  limb) 
Amygdaloid  ("almond")  nucleus 
Corona  radiata  (''radiate  crown") 

Frontal  part 

Parietal  part 

Temporal  part 

Occipital  part 
Radiation  of  corpus  striatum 
Occipitothalamic  radiation  (O.  T.  op- 
tic radiation) 
Anterior  commissure  of  cerebrum 

Anterior  part 

Posterior  part 


Dura  mater  of  brain 

Falx  ("sickle")  of  cerebrum 

Tentorium   of   cerebellum    (cerebellar 

Falx  of  cerebellum  (cerebellar  sickle) 
Diaphragm  of  saddle 
Foramen  of  diaphragm  of  saddle 
Notch  of  tentorium 
Hard  membrane  of  spine 
Thread  of  spinal  dura  mater 
Epidural  cavity 
Subdural  cavity 

Arachnoid  ("spider-web")  of  spine 
Arachnoid  ("  spider-web")  of  brain 
Subarachnoid  space 
Subarachnoid  cisterns 

CerebellomeduUary   cistern    (O.    T. 
cisterna  magna) 

Cistern  of  the  lateral  fossa  of  the 

Cistern  of  the  chiasm 

Interpeduncular  cistern  (O.  T.  cis- 
terna basalis) 

Cistern  of  the  great  vein  of  cerebrum 
Arachnoideal  granulations  (O.  T.  Pac- 
chionian bodies) 
Pia  mater  of  spine  (soft  membrane  of 

Denticulate  ligament 
Intermediate  cervical  septum 
Pia  mater  of  brain  (soft  membrane  of 

Chorioid  tela  of  fourth  ventricle  (O.  T. 

tela  chorioidea  inferior) 
Chorioid  plexus  of  fourth  ventricle 
Chorioid  tela  of  third  ventricle  (O.  T. 

velum  interpositum,  or  tela  chorioidea 

Chorioid  plexus  of  third  ventricle 
Chorioid  plexus  of  lateral  ventricle 
Chorioid  skein 
Brain  sand 

System  of  peripheral  nerves 

Cerebral  nerves 

Olfactory  nerves 

Optic  nerve 

Oculomotor  nerve   (O.   T.   third 

Superior  ramus 

Inferior  ramus 

Short  root  of  ciliary  ganglion  (O.  T. 
motor  root  of  lenticular  ganglion) 

Trochlear  nerve  (O.  T.  patheticus 
or  fourth  nerve) 

Decussation  of  trochlear  nerves 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

N.  trigeminus 

Portio  major 

Ganglion  semilunare   [Gasseri] 

Portio  minor 

N.  ophthalmicus 

N.  tentorii 

N.  lacrimalis 

Ramus   anastomoticus   cum   n.    zygo 

N.  frontalis 

N.  supraorbitalis 

Ramus  frontalis 

N.  supratrochlearis 
N.  nasociliaris 

Radix  longa  ganglii  ciliaris 

Nn.  ciliares  longi 

N.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

N.  ethmoidalis  anterior 

Rami  nasales  anteriores 
Rami  nasales  interni 
Rami  nasales  laterales 
Rami  nasales  mediales 
Ramus  nasalis  externus 
N.  infratrochlearis 

Ramus  palpebralis  superior 

R.  palpebralis  inferior 

G.    c  i  1  i  a  r  e 
Nn.  ciliares  breves 

N.  maxillaris 

N.  meningeus  [medius] 

N.  zygomaticus 

Ramus  zygomaticotemporalis 
Ramus  zygomaticofacialis 
Nn.  sphenopalatini 

Nn.  alveolares  superiores 

Rami    alveolares    superiores    poste- 
N.  infraorbitalis 

R.  alveolaris  superior  medius 

Rami  alveolares    superiores    ante- 
Plexus  dentalis  superior 
Rami  dentales  superiores 
Rami  gingivales  superiores 
Rami  palpebrales  inferiores 
Rami  nasales  externi 
Rami  nasales  interni 
Rami  labiales  superiores 
Ganglion    s  p  h  e  n  o  p  a  1  a  t  i - 
n  u  m 
Rami  orbitales 
N.  canalis  pterygoidei  [Vidii] 

N.  petrosus  superficialis  major 
•N.  petrosus  profundus 

Rami    nasales    posteriores    superiores 

Rami    nasales    posteriores    superiores 

N.  nasopalatinus  [Scarpae] 
Rami  nasales  posteriores  inferiores 

Nn.  palatini 

N.  palatinus  anterior 

N.  palatinus  medius 

N.  palatinus  posterior 

N.  mandibularis 

N.  spinosus 

N.  masticatorius 

N.  massetericus 

Nn.  temporales  profundi 

N.  temporalis  profundus  posterior 



Trigeminal    nerve    (O.    T.    fifth 

Larger  (sensory)  root 

Semilunar  ganglion    (O.  T.  Gasserian 

Smaller  (motor)  root 

Ophthalmic   nerve 

Nerve  to  the  tentorium 

Lacrimal  nerve 

Ramus  anastomosing  with  zygomatic 

Frontal  nerve 

Supraorbital  nerve 

Frontal  ramus 

Supratrochlear  nerve 
Nasociliary  nerve  (O.  T.  nasal  nerve) 

Long  root  of  the  ciliary  ganglion 

Long  ciliary  nerves 

Posterior  ethmoidal  nerve 

Anterior  ethmoidal  nerve 

Anterior  nasal  rami 
Internal  nasal  rami 
Lateral  nasal  rami 
Medial  nasal  rami 
External  nasal  ramus 
Infratrochlear  nerve 

Superior  palpebral  ramus 

Inferior  palpebral  ramus 
Ciliary  ganglion    (O.    T.    len- 
ticular   or   ophthalmic 

Short  ciliary  nerves 

Maxillary    nerve    (0,    T.    superior 

Middle  meningeal  nerve  (O.  T.  recur- 
Zygomatic    nerve    (O.    T.    orbital    or 
Zygomaticotemporal  ramus 
Zygomaticofacial  ramus 
Sphenopalatine  nerves 

Superior  alveolar  nerves 

Posterior  superior  alveolar  rami  (O. 
T.  posterior  superior  dental) 
Infraorbital  nerve 

Middle  superior  alveolar  ramus  (O. 

T.  middle  superior  dental) 
Anterior  superior  alveolar  rami  (O. 
T.  anterior  superior  dental) 
Superior  dental  plexus 
Superior  dental  rami 
Superior  gingival  rami 
Inferior  palpebral  rami 
External  nasal  rami 
Internal  nasal  rami 
Superior  labial  rami 
Sphenopalatine     ganglion 

(O.   T.    Meckel's    ganglion) 
Orbital  rami 

Nerve  of  the  pterygoid  canal,  or  Vidian 
Larger  superficial  petrosal  nerve 
Deep  petrosal  nerve  (O.  T.  great  deep 

peti'osal  branch  of  carotid  plexus) 
Lateral  superior  posterior  nasal  rami 

Medial  superior  posterior  nasal  rami 

Nasopalatine  nerve  of  Scarpa 
Lateral  inferior  posterior  nasal  rami 

Palatine  nerves 

Anterior  palatine  nerve 
Middle  palatine  nerve  (O.  T.  exter- 
nal palatine) 
Posterior  palatine  nerve 

Mandibular  nerve   (0.   T.   inferior 

Spinosus  nerve  (O.  T.  recurrent  nerve) 
Masticator  nerve 

Masseteric  nerve 

Deep  temporal  nerves 

Posterior  deep  temporal  nerve 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

N.  temporalis  profundus  anterior 

N.  buccinatorius 

N.  pterygoideus  externus 

N.  pterygoideus  internus 
N.  auriculotemporalis 

N.  meatus  auditorii  externi 
R.  membranae  tympani 

Rami  parotidei 

Rami  anastomotici  cum  n.  faciali 

Nn.  auriculares  anteriores 

Rami  temporales  superficiales 
N.  lingualis 

Rami  isthmi  faucium 

Rami   anastomotici   cum   n.    hypo- 

N.  sublingualis 

Rami  linguales 
N.  alveolaris  inferior 

Plexus  dentalis  inferior 
Rami  dentales  inferiores 
Rami  gingivales  inferiores 

N.  mylohyoideus 

N.  mentalis 
Rami  mentales 
Rami  labiales  inferiores 

Ganglion   oticum 

N.  petrosus  superficialis  minor 
N.  tensoris  veli  palatini 

N.  tensoris  tympani 

Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n.  spinoso 

R.  anastomoticus  cum  n.  auriculo- 

Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  chorda 


Gan  glion   submaxillare 
Rami  communicantes  cum  n.  linguali 

Rami  submaxillares 

N.  abducens 

N.  facialis 

Geniculum  n.  facialis 

Ganglion  geniculi 

N.  stapedius 

Ramus     anastomoticus     cum     plexu 

N.  auricularis  posterior 

Ramus  occipitalis 
Ramus  digastricus 

Ramus  stylohyoideus 
Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n.  glosso- 

Plexus  parotideus 
Rami  temporales 
Rami  zygomatici 
Rami  buccales 

Ramus  marginalis  mandibulae 
Ramus  colli 
N.   intermedins 

Chorda  tympani 

N.  acusticus 

Radix  vestibularis 
Radix  cochlearis 
Fila  anastomotica 
N.   V  e  s  t  i  b  u  1  i 

Ganglion  vestibulare 

N.  utricularis 

N.  ampullaris  superior 

N.  ampullaris  lateralis 

N.  ampullaris  inferior 
N.   cochleae 

Ganglion  spirale 

N.  saccularis 

N.  glossopharyngeus 
Ganglion  superius 



Anterior  deep  temporal  nerve 
Buccinator  nerve 
External  pterygoid  nerve 
Internal  pterygoid  nerve 
Auriculotemporal  nerve 

Nerve  of  external  auditory  meatus 

Ramus  to  tympanic  membrane 
Parotid  rami 

Anastomotic  rami  to  the  facial  nerve 
Anterior  auricular  nerves 
Superficial  temporal  rami 
Lingual  nerve 

Rami  to  the  isthmus  of  the  fauces 
Anastomotic  rami  to  the  hypoglossal 

Sublingual  nerve 
Lingual  rami 
Inferior  alveolar  nerve  (O.  T.  inferior 

Inferior  dental  plexus 

Inferior  dental  rami 

Inferior  gingival  rami 
Mylohyoid  nerve 
Mental  nerve 

Rami  to  chin 

Rami  to  lower  lip 

Otic  ganglion   (O.   T.  ganglion 
of  Arnold) 
Lesser  superficial  petrosal  nerve 
Nerve  of  tensor  muscle  of  palatine 

Nerve  of  tensor  muscle  of  tympanum 
Anastomotic    ramus    with    spinosus 

Anastomotic   ramus   with   auriculo- 
temporal nerve 
Anastomotic  ramus  with  chorda  tym- 

Submaxillary     ganglion 

Rami    communicating    with    lingual 

Submaxillary  rami 

Abducent    nerve     (O.    T.    sixth 

Facial  nerve  (O.  T.  seventh  nerve) 

Knee  of  the  facial  nerve 

Ganglion  of  the  knee  (official  nerve) 

Nerve  to  the  stapedius  muscle 

Ramus   anastomosing  with   tympanic 
plexus  (O.  T.  tympanic  branch) 

Posterior  auricular  nerve 
Occipital  ramus 

Digastric  ramus 
Stylohyoid  ramus 

Ramus  anastomosing  with  glossopha- 
ryngeal nerve 

Parotid  plexus 

Temporal  rami 

Zygomatic  rami 

Buccal  rami 

Ramus  of  margin  of  jaw 

Ramus  to  neck 

Intermediate   nerve    (O.    T. 
pars        intermedia        of 
Wrisberg,      or     sensory 
part   of   facial   nerve) 
Cord  of  tympanum 

Acoustic  nerve    (O.    T.    auditory 

Vestibular  root 
Cochlear  root 
Anastomotic  fibres 
Vestibular    nerve 

Vestibular  ganglion 

Utricular  nerve 

Superior  ampullar  nerve 

Lateral  ampullar  nerve 

Inferior  ampullar  nerve 
Nerve    of    the    cochlea 

Spiral  ganglion 

Saccular  nerve 

Glossopharyngeal  nerve 

Upper  ganglion  (O.  T.  jugular  gang- 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Ganglion  petrosum 

N.  tympanicus 

Intumescentia  tympanica 
Plexus  tympanicus  [Jacobsoni] 

N.  caroticotympanicus  superior 

N.  caroticotympanicus  inferior 

Ramus  tubae 
R.  anastomoticus  cum  ramo  auriculari 

n.  vagi 
Rami  pharyngei 
Ramus  stylopharyngeus 
Rami  tonsi Hares 

Rami  linguales 

N.  vagus 
Ganglion  jugulare 

Ganglion  nodosum 

Ramus  meningeus 

Ramus  auricularis 

R.   anastomoticus  cum  n.   glossopha- 

Rami  pharyngei 
Plexus  pharyngeus 
N.  laryngeus  superior 

Ramus  externus 

Ramus  internus 

Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n.  laryn- 
geo  inferiore 
Rami  cardiaci  superiores 
(N.  depressor) 
N.  recurrens 

Rami  cardiaci  inferiores 

Rami  tracheales 

Rami  oesophagei 
N.  laryngeus  inferior 
Ramus  anterior 
Ramus  posterior 
Rami  bronchiales  anteriores 
Rami  bronchiales  posteriores 
Plexus  pulmonalis  anterior 
Plexus  pulmonalis  posterior 
Rami  oesophagei 
Plexus  oesophageus  anterior 

Plexus  oesophageus  posterior 

Rami  gastrici 

Plexus  gastricus  anterior 

Plexus  gastricus  posterior 

Rami  hepatici 

Rami  coeliaci 

Rami  lienales 

Rami  renales 

N.  accessorius 
Ramus  internus 

Ramus  externus 

N.  hypoglossus 
Ramus  descendens 
Ansa  hypoglossi 
Ramus  thyreohyoideus 
Rami  linguafes 

N.  spinales 

Fila  radicularia 
Radix  anterior 
Radix  posterior 
Ganglion  spinale 
Ramus  anterior 
Ramus  posterior 
Ramus  communicans 
Ramus  meningeus 
Cauda  equina 



Petrous  ganglion   (O.   T.  ganglion  of 

Tympanic    nerve    (O.    T.    Jacobson's 

Tympanic  swelling 

Tympanic  plexus 

Superior  caroticotympanic  nerve 
Inferior  caroticotympanic  nerve 
Tubal  ramus 

Ramus  anastomosing  with  the  auricu- 
lar branch  of  the  vagus 

Pharyngeal  rami 

Stylopharyngeal  ramus 

Tonsillar     rami     (O.     T.     tonsillitic 

Lingual  rami  (O.  T.  terminal  rami) 

Vagus  nerve  (O.  T.  pneuniogas= 
trie  nerve) 

Jugular  ganglion  (O.  T.  ganglion  of 

the  root) 
Knotty  ganglion  (O.  T.  ganglion  of  the 

Meningeal    ramus    (O.    T.    recurrent 

Auricular    ramus     (O.     T.     Arnold's 

Ramus     anastomosing     with     glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve 
Pharyngeal  rami 
Pharyngeal  plexus 
Superior  laryngeal  nerve 

External  ramus 

Internal  ramus 

Ramus   anastomosing  with   inferior 
laryngeal  nerve 
Superior  cardiac  rami 
Depressor  nerve 

Recurrent    nerve     (O.    T.    recurrent 

Inferior  cardiac  rami  (O.  T.  cardiac 
branches  of  recurrent  laryngeal) 

Tracheal  rami 

Oesophageal  rami 

Inferior  laryngeal  nerve 
Anterior  ramus 
Posterior  ramus 
Anterior  bronchial  rami 
Posterior  bronchial  rami 
Anterior  pulmonary  plexus 
Posterior  pulmonary  plexus 
Oesophageal  rami 
Anterior    oesophageal    plexus    (O.  T. 

plexus  gulae) 
Posterior  oesophageal  plexus   (O.   T. 

plexus  gulae) 
Gastric  rami 
Anterior  gastric  plexus 
Posterior  gastric  plexus 
Hepatic  rami 
Coeliac  rami 

Splenic  rami 

Renal  rami 

Accessory    nerve    (O.    T.    spinal 

Internal  ramus  (O,  T.  accessory  por- 
External  ramus  (O.  T.  spinal  portion) 

Hypoglossal  nerve 

Descending  ramus 
Loop  of  the  hypoglossus 
Thyreohyoid  ramus 
Lingual  rami 

Spinal  nerves 

Radicular  fibres 

Anterior  root 

Posterior  root 

Spinal  ganglion 

Anterior  ramus 

Posterior  ramus 

Communicating  ramus 

Meningeal  ramus 

Cauda  equina  ("  horse's  tail  ") 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Nn.  cervicales 

Rami  posteriores 

Ramus  medialis 
Ramus  lateralis 
N.  suboccipitalis 

N.  occipitalis  major 

(N.  occipitalis  tertius) 

Rami  anteriores 

Plexus   cervicalis 
N.  occipitalis  minor 
N.  auricularis  magnus 

Ramus  posterior 

Ramus  anterior 
N.  cutaneus  colli 

Rami  superiores 

Rami  inferiores 

Nn.  supraclaviculares 

Nn.  supraclaviculares  anteriores 

Nn.  supraclaviculares  medii 

Nn.  supraclaviculares  posteriores 

N.  phrenicus 

Ramus  pericardiacus 
Rami  phrenicoabdominales 

Plexus  brachialis 

Pars   s  u  p  r  a  c  1  a  V  i  c  u  1  a  r  i  s 
Nn.  thoracales  posteriores 
N.  dorsalis  scapulae 

N.  thoracalis  longus 

Nn.  thoracales  anteriores 

N.  subclavius 

N.  suprascapularis 

Nn.  subscapulares 

N.  thoracodorsalis 

N.  axillaris 

Rami  musculares 

N.  cutaneus  brachii  lateralis 
Pars   i  n  f  r  a  c  1  a  V  i  c  u  la  r  is 

Fasciculus  lateralis 

Fasciculus  medialis 

Fasciculus  posterior 

N.  musculocutaneus 
Rami  musculares 
N.  cutaneus  antibrachii  lateralis 

N.  cutaneus  brachii  medialis 

N.  cutaneus  antibrachii  medialis 

Ramus  volaris 
Ramus  ulnaris 

N.  medianus 

Rami  musculares 

N.  interosseus  [antibrachii]  volaris 

Ramus  palmaris  n.  mediani 

Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n.  ulnari 
Nn.  digitales  volares  communes 
Nn.  digitales  volares  proprii 

N.  ulnaris 
Ramus  cutaneus  palmaris 
Ramus  dorsalis  manus 



Cervical  nerves 

Posterior  rami   (O.   T.   posterior  pri- 
mary divisions) 
Medial  ramus 
Lateral  ramus 

Suboccipital  nerve  (O.  T.  posterior 
primary  division  of  first  cervical 

Larger  occipital  nerve  (O.  T.  great 
occipital,  or  medial  branch  of  pos- 
terior primary  division  of  second  cer- 
vical nerve) 

Third  occipital  nerve  (O.  T.  third  oc- 
cipital, or  medial  branch  of  the  pos- 
terior primary  division  of  the  third 
cervical  nerve) 

Anterior  rami  (O.  T.  anterior  primary 

Cervical    plexus 

Lesser  occipital    nerve 

Great  auricular  nerve 
Posterior  ramus 
Anterior  ramus 

Cutaneous  nerve  of  the  front,  of  the 
neck  (O.  T.  superficial  cervical) 
Upper  rami 
Lower  rami 

Supraclavicular  nerves 

Anterior  supraclavicular  nerves  (O. 

T.  suprasternal) 
Middle   supraclavicular   nerves    (O. 

T.  supraclavicular) 
Posterior  supraclavicular  nerves  (O 
T.  supra-acromial) 

Phrenic  nerve 

Pericardiac  ramus 
Phrenicoabdominal  rami 

Brachial  plexus 

Supraclavicular    part 
Posterior  thoracic  nerves 

Dorsal  nerve  of  scapula  (O.  T.  nerve 
to  the  rhomboids) 

Long  thoracic  nerve  (O.  T.  external 
respiratory  nerve  of  Bell,  or  pos- 
terior thoracic) 

Anterior  thoracic  nerves 

Subclavius  nerve 

Suprascapular  nerve 

Subscapular  nerves 

Thoracodorsal  nerve  (O.  T.  long  sub- 
scapular nerve) 

Axillary  nerve  (O.  T.  circumflex) 
Muscular  rami 
Lateral  cutaneous  nerve  of  arm 

Infraclavicular    part 

Lateral  fasciculus  (O.  T.  outer  cord) 
Medial  fasciculus  (O.  T.  inner  cord) 
Posterior  fasciculus  (O.  T.  posterior 

Musculocutaneous  nerve 
Muscular  branches 
Lateral  cutaneous  nerve  of  forearm 
(O.  T.  terminal  cutaneous  branch) 

Medial  nerve  of  upper  arm  (O.  T.  les- 
ser internal  cutaneous,  or  nerve  of 

Medial  nerve  of  forearm  (O.  T.  inter- 
nal cutaneous) 
Volar  ramus  (O.  T.  anterior  branch) 
Ulnar  ramus  (O.  T.  posterior  branch 

Median  nerve 

Muscular  rami 

Volar   interosseous   nerve   of  forearm 

(O.'T.  anterior  interosseous) 
Palmar  ramus  of  median  nerve  (O.T. 

median  palmar  cutaneous) 
Ramus  anastomosing  with  ulnar  nerve 
Common  volar  digital  nerves 
Proper  volar  digital  nerves  (O.  T.  col- 
lateral palmar  digital  nerves) 

Ulnar  nerve 

Palmar  cutaneous  ramus 
Dorsal  ramus  of  hand  (O.  T.  dorsal 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Nn.  digitales  dorsales 
Ramus  volaris  manus 
Ramus  superficialis 
Nn.  digitales  volares  communes 
Nn.  digitales  volares  proprii 

Ramus  profundus 
Rami  musculares 

N.  radialis 

N.  cutaneus  brachii  posterior 

Rami  musculares 

N.  cutaneus  antibrachii  dorsalis 

Ramus  profundus 

N.  interosseus  [antibrachii]  dorsalis 

Ramus  superficialis 

Ramus  anastomoticus  ulnaris 

Nn.  lumbales,  sacrales,  coccygeus 

Nn.  lumbales 
Rami  posteriores 
Ramus  medialis 
Ramus  lateralis 

Nn.  clunium  superiores 
Rami  anteriores 
Nn.  sacrales  et  coccygeus: 
Rami  posteriores 
Ramus  medialis 
Ramus  lateralis 
Nn.  clunium  medii 

.Plexus  lumbosacralis 
Plexus  lumbalis 

Rami  musculares     , 

N.  iliohypogastricus 

Rami  musculares 
Ramus  cutaneus  lateralis 

Ramus  cutaneus  anterior 

Nn.  digitales  dorsales 

Nn.  thoracales 

Rami  posteriores 

Ramus  cutaneus  lateralis 
Ramus  cutaneus  medialis 
Rami  anteriores  [Nn.  intercostales] 
Rami  musculares 

Ramus    cutaneus    lateralis    [pecto- 
ralis  et  abdominalis] 
Ramus  posterior 
Ramus  anterior 
Rami  mammarii  laterales 
Nn.  intercostobrachiales 

Ramus     cutaneus     anterior    [pecto- 
ralis  et  abdominalis] 
Rami  mammarii  mediales 

N.  ilioinguinalis 

Rami  musculares 

Nn.  scrotales  anteriores 

Nn.  labiales  anteriores 

N.  genitofemoralis 

N.  lumboinguinalis 

N.  spermaticus  externus 

N.  cutaneus  femoris  lateralis 

N.  obturatorius 

Ramus  anterior 

Ramus  cutaneus 
Ramus  posterior 



Dorsal  digital  nerves 
Volar  ramus  of  hand 

Superficial  ramus 

Common  volar  digital  nerves 

Proper  volar  digital  nerves  (O.  T 
collateral  palmar  digital) 
Deep  ramus 

Muscular  rami 

Radial  nerve  (0.  T.  musculospiral) 

Posterior  cutaneous  nerve  of  upper 
arm  (O.  T.  upper  external  cuta- 
neous branch  of  musculospiral) 

Muscular  rami 

Dorsal  cutaneous  nerve  of  forearm 
(O.  T.  lower  external  cutaneous 
branch  of  musculospiral) 

Deep  ramus 

Dorsal  interosseous  nerve  of  forearm 
(O.  T.  posterior  interosseous) 

Superficial  ramus  (O.  T.  radial  branch 
of  musculospiral) 
Ramus    anastomosing    with    ulnar 

Dorsal  digital  nerves 

Thoracic  nerves 

Posterior  rami 

Lateral  cutaneous  ramus 
Medial  cutaneous  ramus 
Anterior  rami  [intercostal  nerves] 
Muscular  rami 

Lateral  cutaneous  ramus  (of  breast 
and   abdomen) 
Posterior  ramus 
Anterior  ramus 
Lateral  mammary  rami 
Intercostobrachial  nerves    (O.   T.   in- 
tercosto-humeral  nerves) 
Anterior  cutaneous  ramus  (of  breast 
and  abdomen) 
Medial  mammary  rami 

Lumbar,  sacral,  and  coccygeal 

Lumbar  nerves 
Posterior  rami 
Medial  ramus 
Lateral  ramus 

Superior  clunial  nerves 
Anterior  rami 

Sacral  and  coccygeal  nerves 
Posterior  rami 
Medial  ramus 
Lateral  ramus 

Middle  clunial  nerves 

Ltunbosacral  plexus 
Lumbar  plexus 

Muscular  rami 

Iliohypogastric  nerve 

Muscular  rami 

Lateral  cutaneous  ramus  (O.  T.  iliac 
branch  of  hypogastric) 

Anterior  cutaneous  ramus  (O.  T.  hy- 
pogastric branch) 

Ilio-inguinal  nerve 

Muscular  rami 
Anterior  scrotal  nerves 
Anterior  labial  nerves 

Genitofemoral  nerve  (0.  T.  genito- 
crural  nerve) 

Lumbo-inguinal  nerve  (O.  T.  crural 
branch  of  genitocrural) 

External  spermatic  nerve  (O.  T.  geni- 
tal branch  of  genitocrural) 

Lateral  cutaneous  nerve  of  thigh 
(0.  T.  external  cutaneous) 

Obturator  nerve 

Anterior  ramus 

Cutaneous  ramus 
Posterior  ramus 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 
N.  femoralis  N.  tibialis 

Rami  cutanei  anteriores 
Rami  musculares 
N.  saphenus 

Ramus  infrapatellaris 

Rami  cutanei  cruris  mediales 

Plexus  sacralis 

Truncus  lumbosacralis 

N.  glutaeus  superior 

N.  glutaeus  inferior 

N.  cutaneus  femoris  posterior 

Nn.  clunium  inferiores 

Rami  perineales 

N.  ischiadicus 

Rami  musculares 

N.  peronaeus  communis 

Rami  musculares 

N.  cutaneus  surae  lateralis 

Ramus  anastomoticus  peronaeus 

N.  peronaeus  superficialis 

Rami  musculares 
N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  medialis 
N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  intermedins 
Nn.  digitales  dorsales  pedis 
N.  peronaeus  profundus 

Rami  musculares 

Nn.  digitales  dorsales  hallucis  late- 
ralis et  digiti  secundi  medialis 

Rami  musculares 

N.  interosseus  cruris 

N.  cutaneus  surae  medialis 

[N.  suralis] 

Rami  calcanei  laterales 
N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  lateralis 
Rami  calcanei  mediales 
N.  plantaris  medialis 

Nn.  digitales  plantares  communes 
Nn.  digitales  plantares  proprii 
N.  plantaris  lateralis 

Ramus  superficialis 

Nn.    digitales    plantares    com- 

Nn.  digitales  plantares  proprii 
Ramus  profundus 

Plexus  pudendus 

Nn.  haemorrhoidales  medii 
Nn.  vesicales  inferiores 
Nn.  vaginales 
N.  pudendus 

Nn.  haemorrhoidales  inferiores 

N.  perinei 

Nn.  scrotales  posteriores 

Nn.  labiales  posteriores 

N.  dorsalis  penis 

N.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

N.  coccygeus 
Plexus  coccygeus 
Nn.  anococcygei 



Femoral    nerve    (0.    T.    anterior 

Anterior  cutaneous  rami 
Muscular  rami 

Saphenous  nerve   (O.  T.  long  saphe- 
Infrapatellar  ramus  (O.  T.  patellar 

branch  or  long  saphenous) 
Medial  cutaneous  rami  of  leg     . 

Sacral  plexus 

Lumbosacral  trunk   (O.   T.   lumbosa- 
cral cord) 

Superior  gluteal  nerve 

Inferior  gluteal  nerve 

Posterior  cutaneous  nerve  of  thigh 
Inferior  nerves  of  buttock 
Perineal  rami 

Sciatic  nerve  (0.  T.  great  sciatic) 

Muscular  rami 

Common  peroneal  nerve  (O.  T.  exter- 
nal popliteal) 
Muscular  rami 

Lateral  cutaneous  nerve  of  calf 
Peroneal  anastomotic  ramus  (O.  T. 
nervus  communicans  fibularis) 
Superficial  peroneal  nerve  (O.  T.  mus- 
Muscular  rami 

Medial  dorsal  cutaneous  nerve 
Intermediate  dorsal  cutaneous  nerve 
Dorsal  digital  nerves  of  foot 
Deep  peroneal  nerve  (O.  T.  anterior 
Muscular  rami 

Dorsal  digital  nerves  to  lateral  sur- 
face of  hallux  and  to  medial  sur- 
face of  second  digit 

Tibial  nerve  (O.  T.  internal  popliteal 
Muscular  rami 
Interosseous  nerve  of  the  leg 

Medial  cutaneous  nerve  of  the  calf 
(O.  T.  nervus  communicans  tib- 
Nerve  of  the  calf  (O.  T.  short  saphe- 
nous nerve) 

Lateral  calcanean  rami 
Lateral  dorsal  cutaneous  nerve 
Medial  calcanean   rami 
Medial  plantar  nerve  (O.    T.    internal 
Common  digital  plantar  nerves 
Proper  digital  plantar  nerves 
Lateral  plantar  nerve  (O.  T.  external 
Superficial  ramus 

Common  digital  plantar  nerves 

Proper  digital  plantar  nerves 
Deep  ramus 

Pudendal  plexus 

Middle  hemorrhoidal  nerves 

Inferior  vesical  nerves 

Vaginal  nerves 

Pudendal  nerve  (O.  T.  pudic  nerve) 

Inferior  hemorrhoidal  nerves 

Nerve  of  perineum 

Posterior  scrotal  nerves 

Posterior  labial  nerves 

Dorsal  nerve  of  penis 

Dorsal  nerve  of  clitoris 

•        Coccygeal  nerve 

Coccygeal  plexus 
Anococcygeal  nerves 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Systema  nervorum  sympathicum 

Truncus  sympathicus 
Ganglia  trunci  sympathici 
Plexus  sympathici 
Ganglia  plexuum  sympathicorum 

Pars    cephalica    et    cervicalis    s. 

Ganglion  cervicale  superius 

N.  jugularis 

N.  caroticus  internus 

Plexus  caroticus  internus 

Plexus  cavernosus 

Plexus  arteriae  cerebri  anterioris 

Plexus  arteriae  cerebri  mediae 

Plexus  arteriae  chorioideae 

Plexus  ophthalmicus 

Radices  sympathicae  ganglii  ciliaris 

Nn.  carotici  externi 

Plexus  caroticus  externus. 

Plexus  thyreoideus  superior 

Plexus  lingualis 

Plexus  maxillaris  externus 

Radix    sympathica    ganglii    submaxil- 

Plexus  occipitalis 
Plexus  auricularis  posterior 
Plexus  temporalis  superficialis 
Plexus  maxillaris  internus 
Plexus  meningeus 
Plexus  caroticus  communis 
Rami  laryngopharyngei 
Plexus  pharyngeus  ascendens 
N.  cardiacus  superior 
Ganglion  cervicale  medium 
N.  cardiacus  medius 
Ganglion  cervicale  inferius 
Ansa  subclavia  [Vieussenii] 
N.  cardiacus  inferior 
Plexus  subclavius 
Plexus  mammarius  internus 

Plexus  thyreoideus  inferior 
Plexus  vertebralis 

Pars  thoracalis  s.  sympathici 

Ganglia  thoracalia 
N.  splanchnicus  major 
Ganglion  splanchnicum 
N.  splanchnicus  minor 

Ramus  renalis 
(N.  splanchnicus  imus) 

Plexus  aorticus  thoracalis 

Plexus  cardiacus 

Plexus  coronarius  cordis  anterior 

Ganglion  cardiacum  [Wrisbergi] 

Plexus  coronarius  posterior 

Rami  pulmonales 

Plexus  pulmonalis 

Pars   abdominalis   et   pelvina   s. 

Ganglia  lumbalia 

Ganglia  sacralia 

Plexus  aorticus  abdominalis 

Plexus  coeliacus 

Ganglia  coeliaca 

Ganglion  mesentericum  superius 

Plexus  phrenicus 

Ganglia  phrenica 
Plexus  hepaticus 
Plexus  lienalis 
Plexus  gastricus  superioT 
Plexus  gastricus  inferior 
Plexus  suprarenalis 
Plexus  renalis 
Plexus  spermaticus 
Plexus  arteriae  ovaricae 
Plexus  mesentericus  superior 
Plexus  myentericus 


Sympathetic  system  of  nerves 

Sympathetic  trunk 

Ganglia  of  the  sympathetic  trunk 

Sympathetic  plexuses 

Ganglia  of  the  sympathetic  plexuses 

Cephalic  and  cervical  portions  of 
the  sympathetic  system 

Superior  cervical  ganglion 

Jugular  nerve 

Internal  carotid  nerve 

Internal  carotid  plexus 

Cavernous  plexus 

Plexus  of  anterior  cerebral  artery 

Plexus  of  middle  cerebral  artery 

Plexus  of  chorioid  artery 

Ophthalmic  plexus 

Sympathetic  roots  of  ciliary  ganglion 

External  carotid  nerves 

External  carotid  plexus 

Superior  thyreoid  plexus 

Lingual  plexus 

External  maxillary  plexus 

Sympathetic  root  of  the  submaxillary 

Occipital  plexus 
Posterior  auricular  plexus 
Superficial  temporal  plexus 
Internal  maxillary  plexus 
Meningeal  plexus 
Common  carotid  plexus 
Laryngopharyngeal  rami 
Ascending  pharyngeal  plexus 
Superior  cardiac  nerve 
Middle  cervical  ganglion 
Middle  cardiac  nerve 
Inferior  cervical  ganglion 
Subclavian  loop 
Inferior  cardiac  nerve 
Subclavian  plexus 
Internal  mammary  plexus 

Inferior  thyreoid  plexus 
Vertebral  plexus 

Thoracic  portion  of  the  sympa- 
thetic system 

Thoracic  ganglia 
Greater  splanchnic  nerve 
Splanchnic  ganglion 
Lesser  splanchnic  nerve 

Renal  ramus 
Lowermost  splanchnic  nerve   (O.   T. 

smallest  splanchnic) 
Thoracic  aortic  plexus 
Cardiac  plexus 

Anterior  coronary  plexus  of  heart 
Cardiac  ganglion  of  Wrisberg 
Posterior  coronary  plexus 
Pulmonary  rami 
Pulmonary  plexus 

Abdominal  and  pelvic  portions  of 
the  sympathetic  system 

Lumbar  ganglia 

Sacral  ganglia 

Abdominal  aortic  plexus 

Coeliac  plexus 

Coeliac  ganglia 

Superior  mesenteric  ganglion 

Phrenic  plexus 

Phrenic  ganglia 
Hepatic  plexus 
Splenic  plexus 
Superior  gastric  plexus 
Inferior  gastric  plexus 
Suprarenal  plexus 
Renal  plexus 
Spermatic  plexus 
Plexus  of  the  ovarian  artery 
Superior  mesenteric  plexus 
Myenteric   plexus    (O.    T.    plexus   of 



Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Plexus  submucosus 

Plexus  mesentericus  inferior 

Nn.  haemorrhoidales  superiores 

Plexus  haemorrhoidalis  superior 

Plexus  iliacus 

Plexus  hypogastricus 

Plexus  haemorrhoidalis  medius 

Plexus  prostaticus 

Plexus  deferentialis 

Plexus  uterovaginalis 

Plexus  vesicalis 

Nn.  vesicales  superiores 

Nn.  vesicales  inferiores 

Plexus  cavernosus  penis 
N.  cavernosus  penis  major 
Nn.  cavernosi  penis  minores 

Plexus  cavernosus  clitoridis 
N.  cavernosus  clitoridis  major 
Nn.  cavernosi  clitoridis  minores 

Plexus  femoralis 

Plexus  popliteus 

Or^ana  sensuum  ct  Integumentum  commune 

Organon  visus 


N.  opticus 

Vaginae  n.  optici 
Spatia  intervaginalia 

Bulbus  oculi 

Polus  anterior 

Polus  posterior 



Axis  oculi  externa 

Axis  oculi  interna 

Axis  optica 

[Linea  visus] 

Vesicula  ophthalmica 

Caliculus  ophthalmicus 

Tunica  fibrosa  oculi 


Sulcus  sclerae 

Rima  cornealis 

Sinus  venosus  sclerae  [Canalis 

Schlemmi,  Lauthi] 
Lamina  fusca 

Lamina  cribrosa  sclerae 
(Raphe  sclerae) 
(Funiculus  sclerae) 


Annulus  conjunctivae 

Vertex  corneae 

Limbus  corneae 

Facies  anterior 

Facies  posterior 

Epithelium  corneae 

Lamina  elastica  anterior  [Bowmani] 

Substantia  propria 

Lamina  elastica  posterior  [Demoursi, 

Endothelium  camerae  anterioris 

Tunica  vasculosa  oculi 


Lamina  suprachorioidea 
Spatium  perichorioideale 
Lamina  vasculosa 
Lamina  choriocapillaris 

Lamina  basahs 
(Raphe  chorioideae) 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Plexus    of   submucosa  (O.  T.  plexus 

of  Meissner) 
Inferior  mesenteric  plexus 
Superior  hemorrhoidal  nerves 
Superior  hemorrhoidal  plexus 
Iliac  plexus 
Hypogastric  plexus 
Middle  hemorrhoidal  plexus 
Prostatic  plexus 
Deferential  plexus 
Uterovaginal  plexus 

Vesical  plexus 

Superior  vesical  nerves 

Inferior  vesical  nerves 

Cavernous  plexus  of  penis 

Larger  cavernous  nerve  of  penis 
Lesser  cavernous  nerves  of  penis 

Cavernous  plexus  of  clitoris 

Larger  cavernous  nerve  of  clitoris 
Lesser  cavernous  nerves  of  clitoris 

Femoral  plexus 

Popliteal  plexus 

Sense  organs  and  common  integument 

Organ  of  vision 


Optic  nerve 

Sheaths  of  the  optic  nerve 
Intervaginal  spaces 


Anterior  pole 
Posterior  pole 

External  axis  of  eye 
Internal  axis  of  eye 
Optic  axis 
Line  of  vision 
Ophthalmic  vesicle 
Ophthalmic  cup 

Fibrous  tunic  of  eye 
Sclera  (0.  T.  sclerotic  coat) 

Sulcus  of  the  sclera 
Cleft  for  the  cornea 
Venous  sinus  of  the  sclera,  or  canal  of 

Brown  layer 

Perforated  layer  of  the  sclera 
Ridge  of  the  sclera 
Funiculus  of  the  sclera 


Ring  of  conjunctiva 

Vertex  of  cornea 

Border  of  cornea 

Anterior  surface 

Posterior  surface 

Epithelium  of  cornea 

Anterior  elastic  layer  (O.  T.  Bow- 
man's membrane) 

Proper  substance 

Posterior  elastic  layer  (O.  T.  Desce- 
met's  membrane) 

Endothelium  of  anterior  chamber 

Vascular  coat  of  eye 

Suprachorioid  layer 

Perichorioideal  space 

Vascular  layer 

Choriocapillary   layer    (O.   T.    tunica 

Basal  layer 
Raphe  of  chorioid 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Corpus  ciliare 

Corona  ciliaris 
Processus  ciliares 
Plicae  ciliares 
Orbiculus  ciliaris 
M.  ciliaris 

Fibrae  meridionales  [Brueckei] 
Fibrae  circulares  [Muelleri] 
Plexus  gangliosus  ciliaris 


Margo  pupillaris 
Margo  ciliaris 
Facies  anterior 
Facies  posterior 
Annulus  iridis  major 
Annulus  iridis  minor 
Plicae  iridis 

M.  sphincter  pupillae 
Stroma  iridis 
M.  dilatator  pupillae 
Lig.  pectinatum  iridis 

Spatia  anguli  iridis  [Fontanae] 

Circulus  arteriosus  major 
Circulus  arteriosus  minor 
Memhrana  pupillaris 

Stratum  pigmenti 

Stratum  pigmenti  retinae 
Stratum  pigmenti  corporis  ciliaris 
Stratum  pigmenti  iridis 


Pars  optica  retinae 

Ora  serrata 
Pars  ciliaris  retinae 
Papilla  n.  optici 
Excavatio  papillae  n.  optici 
Macula  lutea 
Fovea  centralis 

Vasa      sanguinea      retinae 

Circulus  vasculosus  n.  optici  [Halleri] 

Arteriola  [Venula]  temporalis  retinae 

Arteriola  [Venula]  temporalis  retinae 

Arteriola  [Venula]  nasalis  retinae 

Arteriola  [Venula]  nasalis  retinae 

Arteriola  [Venula]  macularis  su- 

Arteriola  [Venula]  macularis  in- 

Arteriola    [Venula]    retinae    medialis 

Camera  oculi  anterior 

Angulus  iridis 

Camera  oculi  posterior 

Corpus  vitreum 

A.  hyaloidea 
Canalis  hyaloideus 
Fossa  hyaloidea 
Membrana  hyaloidea 

Stroma  vitreum 

Humor  vitreus 

Lens  crystallina 

Substantia  lentis 

Substantia  corticalis 

Nucleus  lentis 
Fibrae  lentis 
Epithelium  lentis 
Capsula  lentis 
Polus  anterior  lentis 
Polus  posterior  lentis 
Facies  anterior  lentis 
Facies  posterior  lentis 
Axis  lentis 
Aequator  lentis 
Radii  lentis 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Ciliary  body 

Ciliary  wreath 
Ciliary  processes 
Ciliary  folds 
Ciliary  disk 
Ciliary  muscle 
Meridional  fibres 
Circular  fibres 
Ciliary  ganglionic  plexus 

Iris,  or  diaphragm  of  the  eye 

Pupillary  margin 

Ciliary  margin 

Anterior  surface 

Posterior  surface 

Greater  ring  of  iris 

Lesser  ring  of  iris 

Folds  of  iris 


Sphincter  muscle  of  pupil 

Stroma  of  iris 

Dilator  muscle  of  pupil 

Pectinate   ("comb-like")   ligament    of 

iris  (O.  T.  pillars  of  the  iris) 
Spaces  of  the  angle  of  the  iris  (O.  T. 

spaces  of  Fontana) 
Greater  arterial  circle 
Lesser  arterial  circle 
Pupillary  membrane 

Layer  of  pigment 

Pigment  layer  of  the  retina 
Pigment  layer  of  ciliary  body 
Pigment  layer  of  iris 


Optic  part  of  retina 

Serrated  edge 
Ciliary  part  of  retina 
Papilla  of  optic  nerve 
Ej^cavation  of  papilla  of  optic  nerve 
Yellow  spot 
Central  fovea 

Blood  vessels    of    the    retina 

Vascular  circle  of  the  optic  nerve 

Superior  arteriole  (venule)  of  temporal 

Inferior  arteriole  (venule)  of  temporal 

Superior  arteriole  (venule)  of  nasal  ret- 

Inferior  arteriole  (venule)  of  nasal  ret- 

Superior  macular  arteriole  (venule) 

Inferior  macular  arteriole  (venule) 

Medial  arteriole  (venule)  of  retina 

Anterior  chamber  of  the  eye 

Angle  of  the  iris  (O.  T.  iridocorneal 

Posterior  chamber  of  the  eye 
Vitreous  body 

Hyaloid  artery 

Hyaloid  canal  (O.  T.  canal  of  Stilling) 
Hyaloid  fossa  (O.  T.  fossa  patellaris) 
Hyaloid  membrane 

Vitreous  stroma 

Vitreous  humor 

Crystalline  lens 

Substance  of  the  lens 

Cortical  substance 

Nucleus  of  the  lens 
Fibres  of  the  lens 
Epithelium  of  the  lens 
Capsule  of  the  lens 
Anterior  pole  of  lens 
Posterior  pole  of  lens 
Anterior  surface  of  lens 
Posterior  surface  of  lens 
Axis  of  the  lens 
Equator  of  the  lens 
Radii  of  the  lens 


Zonula  ciliaris  [Zinni] 

Fibrae  zonulares 
Spatia  zonularia 

Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Tarsus  superior 

Tarsus  inferior 

Organa  oculi  accessoria 

Musculi  oculi,  Fasciae  orbitales 

M.  orbitalis 
M.  rectus  superior 
M.  rectus  inferior 
M.  rectus  medialis 

M.  rectus  lateralis 

Lacertus  musculi  recti  lateralis 
Annulus  tendineus  communis  [Zinni] 
M.  obliquus  superior 

M.  obliquus  inferior 
M.  levator  palpebrae  superioris 
Septum  orbitale 

Fasciae  musculares 
Fascia  bulbi  [Tenoni] 
Spatium  interfasciale  [Tenoni] 
Corpus  adiposum  orbitae 



Palpebra  superior 

Palpebra  inferior 

Facies  anterior  palpebrarum 

Facies  posterior  palpebrarum 

Rima  palpebrarum 

Commissura  palpebrarum  lateralis 

Commissura  palpebrarum  medialis 

Angulus  oculi  lateralis 
Angulus  oculi  medialis 
Limbi  palpebrales  anteriores 
Limbi  palpebrales  posteriores 

Lig.  palpebrale  mediale 

Raphe  palpebralis  lateralis 

Glandulae  tarsales  [Meibomi] 

Sebum  palpebrale 
M.  tarsalis  superior 
M.  tarsalis  inferior 


Plica  semilunaris  conjunctivae 
Caruncula  lacrimalis 
Tunica  conjunctiva  bulbi 
Tunica  conjunctiva  palpebrarum 
Fornix  conjunctivae  superior 
Fornix  conjunctivae  inferior 
Gl.  mucosae  [Krausei] 
Noduli  lymphatici  conjunctivales 

Apparatus  lacrimalis 

Glandula  lacrimalis  superior 
Glandula  lacrimalis  inferior 
(Gl.  lacrimales  accessoriae) 

DuctuK  excretorii  [gl.  lacrimalis] 
Rivus  lacrimalis 
Lacus  lacrimalis 
Puncta  lacrimalia 
Ductus  lacrimales 
Papillae  lacrimales 
Ampulla  ductus  lacrimalis 
Saccus  lacrimalis 
Fornix  sacci  lacrimalis 
Ductus  nasolacrimalis 
Plica  lacrimahs  [Hasneri] 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Ciliary   zonule    (0.   T.    zonule   of 

Zonular  fibres 

Zonular  spaces  (O.  T.  canal  of  Petit) 

Accessory  organs  of  eye 
Eye  muscles,  orbital  fasciae 

Orbital  muscle 

Superior  straight  muscle 

Inferior  straight  muscle 

Medial  straight  muscle  (O.  T.  internal 

Lateral  straight  muscle  (O.  T.  external 

Lacertus  of  lateral  straight  muscle 

Common  tendinous  ring  of  Zinn 

Superior  oblique  muscle 

Inferior  oblique  muscle 

Levator  muscle  of  superior  lid 


Orbital  septum  (O.  T.  palpebral  liga- 

Muscular  fasciae 

Fascia  of  ball  (O.  T.  capsule  of  Tenon) 

Interfascial  space 

Fat  body  of  orbit 


Upper  eyelid 
Lower  eyelid 

Anterior  surface  of  eyelids 
Posterior  surface  of  eyelids 
Palpebral  fissure 
Lateral  palpebral  commissure   (O.  T. 

external  canthus) 
Medial  palpebral  commissure  (O.  T. 

internal   canthus) 
Lateral  angle  of  the  eye 
Medial  angle  of  the  eye 
Anterior  palpebral  margins 
Posterior  palpebral  margins 

Superior  tarsus  (O.  T.  superior  tarsal 

Inferior  tarsus   (O.  T.   inferior  tarsal 

Medial  palpebral  ligament  (O.  T,  in- 
ternal tarsal  ligament) 

Lateral  palpebral  raphe  (O.  T.  exter- 
nal tarsal  ligament) 

Tarsal    glands     (O.     T.     Meibomian 
Palpebral  sebum 

Superior  tarsal  muscle 

Inferior  tarsal  muscle   (O.   T.   tensor 

Conjunctiva    or    connecting 

Semilunar  fold  of  conjunctiva 
Lacrimal  caruncle 
Conjunctival  coat  of  eyeball 
Conjunctival  coat  of  eyelids 
Superior  fornix  of  conjunctiva 
Inferior  fornix  of  conjunctiva 
Mucous  glands  of  Krause 
Conjunctival  lymphatic  nodules 
Conjunctival  fat 

Lacrimal  apparatus 

Superior  lacrimal  gland 
Inferior  lacrimal  gland 
Accessory  lacrimal  glands 

Excretory  ductules  of  lacrimal  gland 
Lacrimal  stream 
Lacrimal  lake 

Lacrimal  (punctate)  openings 
Lacrimal  ducts 
Lacrimal  papillae 
Ampulla  of  lacrimal  duct 
Lacrimal  sac 

Fornix,  or  summit  of  lacrimal  sac 
Nasolacrimal  duct 
Lacrimal  fold  of  Hasner 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Organon  auditus 

Auris  interna 

Labyrinthus  membranaceus 

Ductus  endolymphaticus 

Saccus  endolymphaticus 

Ductus  utriculosaccularis 


Ductus  semicirculares 

Ductus  semicircularis  superior 
Ductus  semicircularis  posterior 
Ductus  semicircularis  lateralis 

Ampullae  membranaceae 
Sulcus  ampullaris 
Crista  ampullaris 
Ampulla  membranacea  superior 
Ampulla  membranacea  posterior 
Ampulla  membranacea  lateralis 


Ductus  reuniens  [Henseni] 

Maculae  acusticae 

Macula  acustica  utriculi 
Macula  acustica  sacculi 




Spatium  perilymphaticum 

Ductus  perilymphatic! 

Ductus   cochlearis 

Caecum  cupulare 
Caecum  vestibulare 
Lamina  basilaris 

Membrana  vestibularis  [Reissneri] 
Lig.  spirale  cochleae 
Prominentia  spiralis 
Stria  vascularis 
Sulcus  spiralis 
Labium  tympanicum 
Foramina  nervosa 
Labium  vestibulare 

Ganglion  spirale  cochleae 
Organon  spirale  [Cortii] 
Vasa   auris   internae 
A.  auditiva  interna 

Rami  vestibulares 

Ramus  cochleae 

Glomeruli  arteriosi  cochleae 
Vv.  auditivae  internae 

V.  spiralis  modioli 
Vas  prominens 

Vv.  vestibulares 

V.  aquaeductus  vestibuli 

V.  canaliculi  cochleae 

Labyrinthus  osseus 

Recessus  sphaericus 

Recessus  ellipticus 

Crista  vestibuli 

Pyramis  vestibuli 

Recessus  cochlearis 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Macula  cribrosa  superior 
Macula  cribrosa  media 
Macula  cribrosa  inferior 

Canales  semicirculares  ossei 
Canalis  semicircularis  superior 
Canalis  semicircularis  posterior 
Canalis  semicircularis  lateralis 

Ampullae  osseae 

Ampulla  ossea  superior 
Ampulla  ossea  posterior 
Ampulla  ossea  lateralis 

Crura  ampullaria 

Crus  commune 

Crus  simplex 


Basis  cochleae 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Organ  of  hearing 

Internal  ear 

Membranous  labyrinth 

Endolymphatic  duct 

Endolymphatic  sac 

Utriculosaccular  duct 


Semicircular  ducts 

Superior  semicircular  duct 
Posterior  semicircular  duct 
Lateral  semicircular  duct  (O.  T.  ex- 

Membranous  ampullae 
AmpuUary  sulcus 
AmpuUary  crest 
Superior  membranous  ampulla 
Posterior  membranous  ampulla 
Lateral  membranous  ampulla 


Uniting  duct  (O.  T.  canalis  reuniens) 

Acoustic  spots 

Acoustic  spot  of  utricle 
Acoustic  spot  of  saccule 




Perilymphatic  space 

Perilymphatic  ducts 

Cochlear  duct  (O.  T.  mem- 
branous cochlea,  or  scala 

Cupular  blind  sac 

Vestibular  blind  sac 

Basilar  layer 

Vestibular  membrane  of  Reissner 

Spiral  ligament  of  cochlea 

Spiral  prominence 

Vascular  stripe 

Spiral  sulcus 

Tympanic  lip 

Openings  for  nerves 

Vestibular  lip 

Spiral  ganglion  of  cochlea 
Spiral  organ  of  Corti 
Vessels    of    internal    ear 
Internal  auditory  artery 

Vestibular  rami 

Cochlear  ramus 

Arterial  glomeruli  of  cochlea 
Internal  auditory  veins 

Spiral  vein  of  modiolus 
Prominent  vessel 

Vestibular  veins 

Vein  of  aqueduct  of  vestibule 

Vein  of  canaliculus  of  cochlea 

Osseous  labyrinth 

Spherical  recess  (O.   T.   fovea  hemi- 

ElHptical  recess  (O.  T.  fovea  hemiel- 

Crest  of  vestibule  « 

Pyramid  of  vestibule 
Cochlear  recess 
Perforated  spots 

Superior  perforated  spot 

Middle  perforated  spot 

Inferior  perforated  spot 
Osseous  semicircular  canals 

Superior  semicircular  canal 

Posterior  semicircular  canal 

Lateral  semicircular  canal  (O.  T.  ex- 
Osseous  ampullae 

Superior  osseous  ampulla 

Posterior  osseous  ampulla 

Lateral  osseous  ampulla 
AmpuUary  limbs 
Common  limb 
Simple  limb 

Cochlea  ("  snail  shell  ") 
Base  of  cochlea 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Canalis  spiralis  cochleae 


Basis  modioli 

Lamina  modioli 

Lamina  spiralis  ossea 

Hamulus  laminae  spiralis 

Scala  vestibuli 

Scala  tympani 


Lamina  spiralis  secundaria 

Canalis  spiralis  modioli 

Canales  longitudinales  modioli 

Meatus  acusticus  intemus 

Porus  acusticus  internus 
Fundus  meatus  acustici  interni 

Crista  transversa 

Area  n.  facialis 

Area  cochleae    ' 

Tractus  spiralis  foraminosus 

Area  vestibularis  superior 

Area  vestibularis  inferior 

Foramen  singulare 

Cavum  tympani 

Paries   tegmentalis 
Recessus  epitympanicus 
Pars  cupularis 

Paries    jugularis 
Prominentia  styloidea 

Paries    labyrinthica 

Fenestra  vestibuli 

Fossula  fenestrae  vestibuli 
Sulcus  promontorii 
Subiculum  promontorii 

Sinus  tympani 
Fenestra  cochleae 

Fossula  fenestrae  cochleae 

Crista  fenestrae  cochleae 
Processus  cochleariformis 
Paries    mastoidea 

Antrum  tympanicum 

Prominentia    canalis    semicircularis 

Prominentia  canalis  facialis 

Eminentia  pyramidalis 

Fossa  incudis 

Sinus  posterior 

Apertura       tympanica       canaliculi 
Cellulae  mastoideae 
Cellulae  tympanicae 
Paries    carotica 

Paries    membranacea 

Membrana  tympani 

Pars  flaccida 

Pars  tensa 

Limbus  membranae  tympani 

Plica  malleolaris  anterior 

Plica  malleolaris  posterior 

Prominentia  malleolaris 

Stria  malleolaris 

Umbo  membranae  tympani 

Stratum  cutaneum 
Annulus  fibrocartilagineus 
Stratum  radiatum 
Stratum  circulare 
Stratum  mucosum 

Ossicula  auditus 


Capitulum  stapedis 
Crus  anterius 
Crus  posterius 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Spiral  canal  of  cochlea 
Modiolus  ("  screw  ") 
Base  of  modiolus 
Shelf  of  modiolus 
Osseous  spiral  shelf 
Hooklet  of  spiral  shelf 
"Staircase"  of  vestibule 
"Staircase"  of  tympanum 
Helicotrema  ("  pore  of  the  helix  ") 
Secondary  spiral  shelf 
Spiral  canal  of  modiolus 
Longitudinal  canals  of  modiolus 

Internal  acoustic  meatus 

Internal  acoustic  opening 

Bottom  of  internal  acoustic  meatus 

Transverse  crest 

Area  of  facial  nerve 

Area  of  cochlea 

Foraminous  spiral  tract 

Superior  vestibular  area 

Inferior  vestibular  area 

Isolated  foramen 

Cavity  of  tympanum 

Tegmental    wall 
Epitympanic  recess 
Cupular  portion 
Jugular    wall    (O.  T.  floor) 

Styloid  prominence 
Labyrinthic  wall  (O.  T.  in- 
ner   wall) 
Fenestra    ("window")  of  vestibule 

(O.  T.  fenestra  ovalis) 
Little  fossa  of  fenestra  of  vestibule 
Sulcus  of  promontory 
Subiculum  ("  support ")  of  promon- 
Sinus  of  tympanum 
Fenestra  of  cochlea  (O.  T.  fenestra 

Little  fossa  of  fenestra  of  cochlea 

Crest  of  fenestra  of  cochlea 

Cochleariform  process 
Mastoid     wall     (O.    T.    pos- 
terior   wall) 

Tympanic  antrum  (O.  T.  mastoidal 

Prominence   of   lateral   semicircular 

Prominence  of  facial  canal 

Pyramidal  eminence 

Fossa  of  incus 

Posterior  sinus 

Tympanic  aperture  of  canaliculus  of 
Mastoid  cells 
Tympanic  cells 

Carotid    wall    (O.    T.   ante- 
rior   wa  1 1 ) 
Membranous     wall     (O.     T. 

outer    wall) 

Membrane  of  the  tympanum  (0.  T. 

Flaccid  part 

Tense  part 

Border  of  membrane  of  tympanum 

Anterior  malleolar  fold 

Posterior  malleolar  fold 

Malleolar  prominence 

Malleolar  stripe 

Umbo  ("prominent  part")  of  tympanic 

Cutaneous  layer 
Fibrocartilaginous  ring 
Radiate  layer 
Circular  layer 
Mucous  layer 

Auditory  ossicles 

Head  of  stirrup 
Anterior  limb 
Posterior  limb 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Basis  stapedis 
Corpus  incudis 
Cms  longum 

Processus  lenticularis 
Crus  breve 
Manubrium  mallei 
Capitulum  mallei 
Collum  mallei 
Processus  lateralis 

Processus  anterior  [Folii] 

Articulationes  ossiculorum  auditus 

Articulatio  incudomalleolaris 
Articulatio  incudostapedia 
Syndesmosis  tympanostapedia 

Ligg.  ossiculorum  auditus 

Lig.  mallei  anterius 
Lig.  mallei  superius 
Lig.  mallei  laterale 

Lig.  incudis  superius 
Lig.  incudis  posterius 
Membrana  obturatoria  (stapedis) 
Lig.  annulare  baseos  stapedis 
[M.  fixator  baseos  stapedis] 

Musculi  ossiculorum  auditus 

M.  tensor  tympani 
M.  stapedius 

Tunica  mucosa  tympanica 

(Gl.  tympanicae) 

Plica  malleolaris  posterior 

Plica  malleolaris  anterior 

Recessus  membranae  tympani  anterior 

Recessus  tympani  membranae  superior 

Recessus  membranae  tympani  posterior 

Plica  incudis 

Plica  stapedis 

Membrana  tympani  secundaria 

Tuba  auditiva  [Eustachii] 

Ostium  tympanicum  tubae  auditivae 
Pars  ossea  tubae  auditivae 

Isthmus  tubae  auditivae 

Cellulae  pneumaticae  tubariae 
Pars  cartilaginae  tubae  auditivae 

Cartilago  tubae  auditivae 

Lamina  [cartilaginis]  medialis 

Lamina  [cartilaginis]  lateralis 
Lamina  membranacea 
Tunica  mucosa 

Gl.  mucosae 

Noduli  lymphatici  tubarii 
Ostium  pharyngeum  tubae  auditivae 

Meatus  acusticus  externus 

Poms  acusticus  externus 

Incisura  tympanica  [Rivini] 

Meatus    acusticus    externus    cartilagi- 

Cartilago  meatus  acustici* 

Incisurae  cartilaginis  meatus  acus- 
tici  externi  [Santorini] 

Lamina  tragi 


Lobulus  auriculae 

Cartilago  auriculae 


Crus  helicis 

Spina  helicis 

Cauda  helicis 


Fossa  triangularis  [auriculae] 

Crura  anthelicis 


Concha  auriculae 

Cymba  conchae 

Cavum  conchae 


Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Base  of  stirrup  (O.  T.  foot-piece) 
Body  of  anvil 
Long  limb 

Lenticular  process 
Short  limb 
Handle  of  hammer 
Head  of  hammer 
Neck  of  hammer 
Lateral     process     (O.    T.     processus 

Anterior  process    (O.     T.     processus 


Joints  of  the  auditory  ossicles 

Joint  between  anvil  and  hammer 
Joint  between  anvil  and  stirrup 
Junction  of  stirrup  and  tympanum 

Ligaments  of  the  auditory  ossicles 

Anterior  ligament  of  hammer 
Superior  ligament  of  hammer 
Lateral  ligament  of  hammer   (O.  T. 

external  ligament) 
Superior  ligament  of  anvil 
Posterior  ligament  of  anvil 
Obturator  membrane  of  stirrup 
Annular  ligament  of  base  of  stirrup 
Fixing  muscle  of  the  base  of  stirrup 

Muscles  of  the  auditory  ossicles 

Tensor  muscle  of  the  tympanum 
Stapedius  muscle 

Tympanic  mucous  coat 

Tympanic  glands 

Posterior  maleolar  fold 

Anterior  malleolar  fold 

Anterior  recess  of  tympanic  membrane 

Superior  recess  of  tympanic  membrane 

Posterior  recess  of  tympanic  membrane 

Fold  of  anvil 

Fold  of  stirrup 

Secondary  tympanic  membrane 

Auditory  or  Eustachian  tube 

Tympanic  opening  of  auditory  tube 
Bony  part  of  auditory  tube 

Isthmus  of  auditory  tube 

Tubal  air  cells 
Cartilaginous  part  of  auditory  tube 

Cartilage  of  auditory  tube 
Medial  layer  of  cartilage 

Lateral  layer  of  cartilage 
Membranous  layer 
Mucous  membrane 

Mucous  glands 

Tubal  lymphatic  nodules 
Pharyngeal  opening  of  auditory  tube 

External  acoustic  meatus 

External  acoustic  opening 

Tympanic  incisure 

Cartilaginous  external  acoustic  meatus 

Cartilage  of  acoustic  meatus 

Notches    in    cartilage    of    external 

acoustic  meatus 
Layer  of  tragus 

External   ear,   or  auricle  (O.  T. 

Lobule  of  auricle 
Cartilage  of  auricle 

Limb  of  coil 
Spine  of  coil 
Tail  of  coil 

Triangular  fossa  of  auricle 
Limbs  of  anthelix 
Scapha  ("skiff") 
Concha  ("shell")  of  auricle 
Cymba  ("  boat  ")  of  auricle 
■  Cavity  of  concha 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Incisura  anterior  [auris] 
Incisura  intertragica 
(Tuberculum  auriculae  [Darwini]) 
(Apex  auriculae  [Darwini]) 
Sulcus  auriculae  posterior 
(Tuberculum  supratragicum) 
Isthmus  cartilaginis  auris 
Incisura  terminalis  auris 
Fissura  antitragohelicina 
Sulcus  anthelicis  transversus 
Sulcus  cruris  helicis 
Fossa  anthelicis 
Eminentia  conchae 
Eminentia  scaphae 
Eminentia  fossae  triangularis 
Ligg.  auricularia  [Valsalvae] 

Lig.  auriculare  anterius 

Lig.  auriculare  superius 

Lig.  auriculare  posterius 
M.  helicis  major 
M.  helicis  minor 
M.  tragicus 

(M.  pyramidalis  auriculae  [Jungi]) 
M.  antitragicus 
M.  transversus  auriculae 
M.  obliquus  auriculae 
(M.  incisurae  heHcis  [Santorini]) 

Organon  olfactus 

Organon  gustus 

Calyculi  gustatorii 

Integumentum  commune 


Sulci  cutis 
Cristas  cutis 
Retinacula  cutis 
Toruh  tactiles 
Foveola  coccygea 
Lig.  caudale 


Stratum  corneum 

Stratum  germinativum  [Malpighii] 


Tunica  propria 
Corpus  papillare 

Tela  subcutanea 

Panniculus  adiposus 

Corpuscula  nervorum  terminalia 

Corpuscula  bulboidea  [Krausii] 
Corpuscula  lamellosa  [Vateri,   Pacini] 

Corpuscula  tactus  [Meissneri] 
Corpuscula  nervorum  genitalia 
Corpuscula  nervorum  articularia 











Folliculus  pili 

Fundus  folliculi  pili 

Collum  follicuh  pili 
Papilla  pili 
Scapus  pili 
Radix  pili 
Bulbus  pili 

Mm.  arrectores  pilorum 
Flumina  pilorum 
Vortices  pilorum 
(Vortex  coccygeus) 

Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 


Tragus  ("goat") 

Anterior  notch  of  ear 

Intertragic  notch 

Darwinian  tubercle  of  auricle 

Tip  of  ear 

Posterior  sulcus  of  auricle 

Supratragic  tubercle 

Cartilaginous  isthmus  of  ear 

Terminal  notch  of  ear 

Antitragohelicine  fissure 

Transverse  groove  of  anthelix 

Groove  of  crus  of  helix 

Fossa  of  anthelix 

Eminence  of  concha 

Eminence  of  scapha 

Eminence  of  triangular  fossa 

Auricular  ligaments  of  Valsalva 
Anterior  auricular  ligament 
Superior  auricular  ligament 
Posterior  auricular  ligament 

Larger  muscle  of  helix 

Smaller  muscle  of  helix 

Muscle  of  tragus 

Pyramidal  muscle  of  ear 

Muscle  of  antitragus 

Transverse  muscle  of  auricle 

Oblique  muscle  of  auricle 

Muscle  of  notch  of  helix 

Organ  of  smell 

Organ  of  taste 

Taste  buds 

Common  integument 


Grooves  of  skin 

Ridges  of  skin 

Retaining  bands  or  folds  of  skin 

Tactile  elevations 

Coccygeal  depression 

Caudal  ligament 

Epidermis,  or  scarf  skin 

Horny  layer 

Germinative,  or  Malpighian  layer 

Corium,  or  leather  skin 

Proper  tunic 
Papillary  body 

Subcutaneous  tissue 

Adipose  panniculus  ("garment")  (O. 
T.  subcutaneous  areolar  tissue) 

Terminal  corpuscles  of  the  nerves 

Bulb-like  corpuscles  of  Krause 
Lamellated    corpuscles    of    Vater    or 

Touch  corpuscle  of  Meissner 
Genital  corpuscles  of  the  nerves 
Articular  corpuscles  of  the  nerves 


Woolly  hair 

Hairs  of  the  head 

Hairs  of  the  eyebrows 


Hairs  of  the  beard 

Hairs  of  the  ear 

Hairs  of  the  nose 

Axillary  hairs 

Pubic  hairs 

Hair  follicle 

Fundus  of  hair  follicle 

Neck  of  hair  follicle 
Papilla  of  hair 
Shaft  of  hair 
Root  of  hair 
Bulb  oi  hair 

Arrector  muscles  of  the  hairs 
Hair  streams 
Hair  whirlpools 
Coccygeal  whirlpool 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 


Matrix  unguis 

Cristae  matricis  unguis 
Sulcus  matricis  unguis 

Vallum  unguis 

Corpus  unguis 

Radix  unguis 


Margo  occultus 

Margo  liber 

Margo  lateralis 

Stratum  corneum  unguis 

Stratum  germinativum  unguis 

Qlandulae  cutis 
Gl.  glomiformes 

Gl.  sudoriferae 

Corpus  gl.  sudoriferae 

Ductus  sudoriferus 

Poms  sudoriferus 

Gl.  ciliares  [Molli] 

Gl.  circumanales 
Gl.  ceruminosae 

Glandulae  sebaceae 

Sebum  cutaneum 


Papilla  mammae 
Corpus  mammae 
Lobi  mammae 

Lobuli  mammae 
Ductus  lactiferi 

Sinus  lactiferi 
Lac  femininum 
Areola  mammae 

Gl.  sebaceae 

Gl.  areolares  [Montgomerii] 
Mamma    virilis 
(Mammae    accessoriae    [muliebres  et 


Sense  Organs  and  Common  Integument 



Bed  of  the  nail 

Crest  of  ungual  matrix 
Sulcus  of  ungual  matrix 

Wall  of  nail 

Body  of  nail 

Root  of  nail 


Hidden  margin 

Free  margin 

Lateral  margin 

Horny  layer  of  nail 

Germinative  layer  of  nail 

Glands  of  the  skin 

Coil  glands 

Sweat  glands 

Body  of  sweat  gland 

Sweat  duct 

Sweat  pore 

Glands  of  the  eyelashes  of  Moll 

Circumanal  glands 
Wax  glands 

Sebaceous  glands 

Cutaneous  sebum 


Nipple  of  the  breast 
Body  of  the  breast 
Lobes  of  the  breast 

Lobules  of  breast 
Lactiferous  duct 

Lactiferous  sinus 
Female  milk 
Areola  of  breast 

Sebaceous  glands 

Areolar  glands  of  Montgomery 
Male     breast 
Accessory  breasts,  female  and  male 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Regiones  corporis  humani 

auctoribus   Merkel,   Rudinger,   Toldt. 

Linea  mediana  anterior 
Linea  mediana  posterior 
Linea  sternalis 
Linea  parasternalis 

Linea  mamillaris 
Linea  axillaris 
Linea  scapularis 

it  palpebraHs  stqter^ 
•  "         irtferwr 

Regions  of  the  Human  Body  97 

Regions  of  the  human  body 

After   the    authors    Merkel,    Riidinger,    Toldt., 

Anterior  median  line  Mammillary  line 

Posterior  median  line  Axillary  line 

Sternal  line  Scapular  line 
Parasternal  line 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Regiones    capitis 
Regio  frontalis 
Regio  supraorbitalis 
Regio  parietalis 
Regio  occipitalis 
Regio  temporalis 
Regio  auricularis 
Regio  mastoidea 
Regiones    faciei 
Regio  nasalis 

Regio  parotideomasseterica 

Fossa  retromandibularis 
Regiones    colli 
Regio  colli  anterior 

Regio  submentalis 

Regio  hyoidea 

Regio  subhyoidea 

Regio  laryngea 

Regio  thyreoidea 

Regio  suprasternalis 

Regio  oralis 

Fossa  jugularis 

Regio  labialis  superior 

Regio  submaxillaris 

Regio  labialis  inferior 

Fossa  carotica 

Regio  mentalis 

Regio  sternocleidomastoidea 

Regio  orbitalis 

Fossa  supraclavicularis  minor 

Regio  palpebralis  superior 

Regio  colli  lateralis 

Regio  palpebralis  inferior 

Fossa  supraclavicularis  major 

Regio  infraorbitalis 

Trigonum  omoclaviculaire 

Regio  buccalis 

Regio  colli  posterior 

Regio  zygomatica 

Regio  nuchae 

Regions  of  the  Human  Body 


Regions    of    the    head 
Region  of  the  forehead 
Supraorbital  region 
Parietal  region 
Region  of  the  occiput 
Region  of  the  temple 
Region  of  the  ear 
Region  of  the  mastoid 
Regions    of    the    face 
Region  of  the  nose 

Parotideomasseteric  region 

Retromandibular  fossa 
Regions    of   the    neck 
Anterior  region  of  neck 
Region  under  the  chin 
Region  of  the  hyoid 
Region  below  hyoid 
Region  of  the  larynx 
Region  of  the  thyreoid 
Region  above  sternum 

Region  of  the  mouth 
Region  of  the  upper  lip 
Region  of  the  lower  lip 
Region  of  the  chin 
Region  of  the  eye 
Region  of  upper  eyelid 
Region  of  lower  eyelid 
Infraorbital  region 
Region  of  the  cheek 
Region  of  the  zygoma 

Jugular  fossa 

Region  below  lower  jaw 

Carotid  fossa 
Region  of  the  sternocleidomastoid 

Lesser  supraclavicular  fossa 
Regfon  of  the  side  of  the  neck 

Larger  supraclavicular  fossa 

Omoclavicular  triangle 
Region  of  the  back  of  the  neck 

Region  of  the  nape 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Fovea  nuchae 
Regiones    pectoris 
Regio  pectoris  anterior 
Regio  sternalis 
Regio  clavicularis 
Regio  infraclavicularis 

Trigonum  deltoideopectorale 
Regio  mammalis 
Regio  inframammalis 
Regio  pectoris  lateralis 
Regio  axillaris 
Fossa  axillaris 

Regio  mediana  dorsi 
Regio  interscapularis 
Regio  scapularis 
Regio  suprascapularis 
Regio  infrascapularis 
Regio  lumbalis 
Regio  coxae 
Regio  sacralis 
Regio  glutaea 
Regio  perinealis 

Regio  analis 

Regio  urogenitalis 

Regio  costalis  lateralis 
Regiones    abdominis 
Regio  epigastrica 
Regio  hypochondriaca 
Regio  mesogastrica 

Regio  umbilicalis 

Regio  abdominalis  lateralis 
Regio  hypogastrica 

Regio  pubica 

Regio  inguinalis 
Regiones    dorsi 

Regio  pudendalis 

Regiones  extremitatis  su 

p  e  r  i  o  r  i  s 
Regio  acromialis 
Regio  deltoidea 
Regio  brachii  lateralis 
Regio  brachii  medialis 
Regio  brachii  anterior 
Regio  brachii  posterior 
Regio  cubiti  anterior 

Fossa  cubitalis 

Regions  of  the  Human  Body 


Nuchal  depression 

Regions   of   the   breast 

Anterior  region  of  breast 

Region  of  the  sternum 

Region  of  the  clavicle 

Region  below  clavicle 

Deltoideopectoral  triangle 
Region  of  the  mammary  gland 
Region  below  mammary  gland 
Lateral  region  of  the  breast 
Region  of  the  axilla 
Axillary  pit 

Median  region  of  the  back 
Interscapular  region 
Region  of  the  scapula 
Region  above  scapula 
Region  below  scapula 
Lumbar  region 
Region  of  the  hip 
Region  of  the  sacrum 
Region  of  the  buttocks 
Region  of  the  perineum 

Anal  region 

Urogenital  region 

Lateral  region  of  ribs 
Regions    of    abdomen 
Epigastric  region 
Hypochondriac  region 
Mesogastric  region 

Region  of  umbilicus 

Lateral  region  of  abdomen 
Hypogastric  region 

Region  of  the  pubes 

Region  of  the  groin 
Regions   of   the   back 

Pundendal  region 

Regions   of   upper    extrem- 

Region  of  the  acromion 
Region  of  the  deltoid 
Lateral  region  of  upper  arm 
Medial  region  of  upper  arm 
Anterior  region  of  upper  arm 
Posterior  region  of  upper  arm 
Anterior  region  of  elbow 

Fossa  of  elbow 


Anatomical  Nomenclature 

Regio  cubiti  posterior 
,     Regio  olecrani 
Regio  cubiti  lateralis 
Regio  cubiti  medialis 
Regio  antibrachii  volaris 
Regio  antibrachii  dorsalis 
Regio  antibrachii  radialis 
Regio  antibrachii  ulnaris 
Regio  dorsalis  manus 
Regio  volaris  manus 
Regiones  digitales  [manus] 

Regiones  dorsales  digitorum 

Regiones  unguiculares 

Regiones  volares  digitorum 
Regiones   e  x  t  r  e  m  i  t  a  t  i  s  i  n 

f  e  r  i  o  r  i  s 
Regio  femoris  anterior 

Fossa  subinguinalis 
Regio  femoris  lateralis 

Regio  trochanterica 
Regio  femoris  posterior 

Regio  femoris  medialis 
Regio  genu  anterior 

Regio  patellaris 
Regio  genu  posterior 

Fossa  poplitea 
Regio  cruris  anterior 
Regio  cruris  posterior 

Regio  suralis 
Regio  cruris  lateralis 
Regio  cruris  medialis 
Regio  malleolaris  lateralis 
Regio  malleolaris  medialis 

Regio  retromalleolaris  lateralis 

Regio  retromalleolaris  medialis 
Regio  calcanea 
Regio  dorsalis  pedis 
Regio  plantaris  pedis 
Regiones  digitales  pedis 
Regiones  dorsales  digitorum  pedis 
Regiones  unguiculares 
Regiones  plantares  digitorum  pedis 

Regions  of  the  Human  Body 


Posterior  region  of  elbow 

Region  of  olecranon 
Lateral  region  of  elbow 
Medial  region  of  elbow 
Volar  region  of  forearm 
Dorsal  region  of  forearm 
Radial  region  of  forearm    . 
Ulnar  region  of  forearm 
Dorsal  region  of  the  hand 
Volar  region  of  the  hand 
Regions  of  the  digits  of  the  hand 

Dorsal  regions  of  digits 

Regions  of  the  nails 

Volar  regions  of  digits 
Regions    of    lower    extrem- 
Anterior  region  of  the  thigh 

Fossa  below  the  groin 
Lateral  region  of  thigh 

Region  of  the  trochanter 
Posterior  region  of  thigh 

Medial  region  of  thigh 
Anterior  region  of  the  knee 

Region  of  the  patella 
Posterior  region  of  knee 

Popliteal  fossa 
Anterior  region  of  the  leg 
Posterior  region  of  leg 

Region  of  the  calf 
Lateral  region  of  leg 
Medial  region  of  leg 
Region  of  lateral  malleolus 
Region  of  medial  malleolus 

Lateral  retromalleolar  region 

Medial  retromalleolar  region 
Region  of  the  heel 
Region  of  the  dorsum  of  foot 
Region  of  the  sole  of  the  foot 
Regions  of  the  digits  of  the  foot 
Dorsal  regions  of  the  digits  of  the  foot 
Regions  of  the  nails 
Plantar  regions  of  the  digits  of  the  foot 

loi  Explanatory  Notes  to  Certain  or  the  Terms 

Explanatory  Notes  to  Certain  of  the  Terms. 

While  there  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  exact  meaning  of  the  majority  of  the 
names  in  the  list,  there  are  some  names  included  which  hitherto  have  been  used 
with  different  meanings  in  different  text-books,  and  here  and  there  a  new  term, 
not  to  be  found  in  any  of  the  text-books,  is  included. 

To  indicate  the  exact  meaning  of  these.  Professor  His,  with  the  approval  of 
the  editing  committee,  wrote  a  series  of  brief  explanatory  notes.  Thus,  for 
example,  the  designations  regarding  the  position  and  direction  of  parts  of  the 
body  are  explained,  transversalis  meaning  across  the  axis  of  the  body,  transversus 
across  the  axis  of  the  organ  concerned.  The  word  intermedins  is  used  for  the 
position  midway  between  media  lis  and  lateralis  in  order  to  avoid  the  juxta- 
position of  words  sounding  so  much  alike  as  medius  and  medialis;  between 
anterior  and  posterior  or  between  externus  and  internus  the  adjective  medius  is 
retained.  The  notes  contain  a  long  discussion  on  the  nomenclature  of  "  glands" 
and  "lymphglands."  In  connection  with  general  terms  it  is  noted  that  discus 
means  "  disc,"  while  meniscus  means  "  crescent."  In  the  osteological  notes 
the  terms  glabella,  infundihulum  ethmoidale,  and  sidci  paraglenoidales  are, 
among  others,  clearly  defined.  Comments  on  the  Pars  lacrimalis  m.  orbicidaris 
or  Horner's  muscle,  the  M.  quadratus  lahii  superioris  (the  old  "  Mm.  levator  labii 
superioris  proprius,  levator  labii  superioris  alaeque  nasi  and  zygomaticus  minor" 
combined),  the  Raphe  pterygomandibularis,  the  Fasciculi  transver si  of  the  palmar 
aponeurosis,  the  Scalenus  minimus,  the  Ligamentum  fundi}  or  me  penis,  the  Falx 
inguinalis  (the  old  "conjoined"  tendon  or  Henle's  ligament),  and  the  Ligamen- 
Pum  inter foveolare  (Hesselbach's  ligament)  are  made  in  connection  with  myology. 

Some  rather  important  notes  accompany  the  splanchnological  terms.  Cer- 
tain new  terms  have  been  adopted  in  the  tonsillar  region,  partly  on  embryological 
grounds.  The  Recessus  pharyngeus  of  Rosenmueller  is  exactly  defined,  as 
is  also  the  Bursa  pharyngeus  (p.  128).  In  connection  with  the  Pars  analis 
recti  attention  is  called  to  the  excellent  description  given  by  the  French  anato- 
mists, Sappey  and  Testut.  A  number  of  the  names  for  parts  of  the  nose  and 
larynx  have  been  drawn  from  the  special  literature.  The  less  familiar  of  these 
in  the  nose — Limen  nasi,  atrium  meatus  medii,  agger  nasi.  Sulcus  oljactorius, 
Recessus  sphenoethmoidalis,  meatus  nasopharyngeus,  Meatus  nasi  communis. 
Processus  sphenoidalis  septi  cartilaginei — are  explained.  In  the  larynx  marked 
precision  has  been  arrived  at  and  a  great  advance  in  nomenclature  has  been 
made.     The  old  terms  Glottis  vera  and  Glottis  spuria  have  been  done  away 

Anatomical  Nomenclature  102 

with;  the  terms  adopted  throughout  are  exceedingly  satisfactory.  The  names 
for  the  genitourinary  organs  are  nearly  all  easily  understood;  the  terms  Annidus 
urethralis  vesicce,  Crista  urethralis,  Corpus  glandulare  prostatce,  Isthmus  prostatcdj 
Colliculus  seminalis  (the  old  Caput  gallinaginis)  are  especially  dealt  with. 

As  might  have  been  expected,  there  are  numerous  notes  upon  the  pelvic 
floor  and  the  pelvic  fascia.  After  the  notes  were  written  the  Commission  changed 
Trigonum  urogenitale  to  Diaphragma  urogenitale.  The  floor  of  the  pelvic 
cavity  is  formed  by  the  M.  levator  ani  and  the  M.  coccygeus,  and  to  this  mus- 
cular funnel  the  name  Diaphragma  pelvis ,  suggested  by  H.  Meyer,  is  given; 
the  fascia  above  it  is  called  the  Pars  diaphragmatica  fasciae  pelvis,  that  below 
it  the  Fascia  inferior  diaphragmatis  pelvis.  The  two  parts  of  the  Fascia  pelvis 
are  designated  Pars  diaphragmatica  and  Pars  endopelvina,  instead  of,  as  of 
yore,  Pars  parietalis  and  Pars  visceralis,  the  reason  being  that  the  latter  terms 
are  used  only  for  serous  membranes.  The  distinction  between  the  Arcus 
tendineus  musculi  levatoris  ani  (the  tendinous  arch  helping  to  give  origin  to 
the  M.  levator  ani  interwoven  with  the  obturator  fascia,  whose  two  extremities 
reach  to  the  upper  margin  of  the  pelvis)  and  the  Arcus  tendineus  fasciae  pelvis 
is  sharply  drawn;  the  latter  crosses  the  former  and  the  two  are  easily  separable 
from  one  another. 

The  Diaphragma  urogenitale,  the  triangular  mass  of  tissue  stretching  across 
between  the  pubic  rami  leaving  a  space  at  its  upper  end  (beneath  the  Lig.  arcua- 
tum)  open  for  the  passage  of  the  Vena  dorsalis  penis  (s.  clitoridis),  is  described 
as  having  a  framework  made  up  of  two  powerful  fascial  layers,  the  Fascia  dia- 
phragmatis urogenitalis  superior  (the  old  "deep  layer  of  the  triangular  liga- 
ment"), and  the  Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogenitalis  inferior  (the  old  "superficial 
layer  of  the  triangular  ligament").  These  two  fasciae  are  fused  at  their  upper 
and  lower  margins,  enclosing  a  flat  slit-like  space.  The  union  of  the  upper 
margins  gives  rise  to  the  Lig.  transversum  pelvis.  The  compartment  between 
the  two  layers  (middle  perineal  compartment)  is  traversed  by  the  membranous 
urethra  with  its  M.  sphincter  urethrae  membranacece.  In  the  compartment  lie 
the  M.  transversus  profundus,  Cowper's  glands,  and  numerous  venous  plexuses. 
The  term  "Fascia  perinei  propria"  has  been  dropped;  it  was  used  in  so  many 
different  ways  that  students  were  confused  by  it. 

The  revision  of  the  names  for  the  peritonaeum  seems  satisfactory.  By 
Membrana  mesenterii  propria  is  meant  the  layer  of  connective  tissue  remaining 
after  removal  of  the  two  peritoneal  layers;  it  carries  the  blood  and  lymph-vessels, 
lymph  glands,  and  fat.  The  division  of  the  Bursa  omentalis  (lesser  peritoneal 
cavity)  into  a  Vestibulum,  Recessus  superior,  Recessus  inferior,  and  Recessus 
lienalis,  is  important.     The  Plica  gastropancreatica  is  explained. 

The  old  name  of  suspensory  ligament  of  the  liver  has  been  changed  to  Lig. 
falci forme  hepatis  for  obvious  reasons. 

On  the  following  terms  of  gynaecological  anatomy  comments  are  made: 
Lig.  suspensorium  ovarii,  Bursa  ovarica,  and  Parametrium. 


Explanatory  Notes  to  Certain  of  the  Terms 

The  angiological  notes  are  meagre,  it  being  assumed  that  the  names  are 
in  general  wholly  intelligible;  a  few  names  of  parts  of  the  heart  are  commented 
on  and  the  question  of  the  veins  about  the  navel  is  thoroughly  ventilated. 

The  neurological  notes  are  in  accord  with  the  well-known  nomenclature 
based  on  the  embryological  studies  of  His,  and  those-  familiar  with  his  work 
will  find  but  little  new  in  them. 

These  notes  are  not  more  fully  incorporated  into  this  volume  for  two  reasons : 
(i)  They  are  easily  accessible  to  those  who  desire  to  refer  to  them  in  the  Arch, 
f.  Anat.  u.  Entwicklungs  geschichte  (1895),  and  (2)  they  would  have  incon- 
veniently enlarged  the  size  and  increased  the  price  of  the  present  publication. 

Regiones  digitales 
.,---  Tolaxes 


R.  oralis-' 

R.cubiti  anterior 

/  R.cubdtimedialis 






— R.  laerrtalis 


/  R.olecreiid 

Hegio  ingiiinalis- 

pedis  dorsaJis  1 


IL  temporalis- 



R.  temp  oralis 


L R.  aiiricularis 

...Fovea  nuchae 

R.  digitales 
dorsales " 







•  inteT- 
sdapuLai  is 

















R.infra-i  Vm 



R.  trochanterica 


Tessa  retromalledlaris  lateralis 
R, .  retromalleolacis  lateralis . 

Fossa  retromalleclciris 





Anatomy,  Physiology, 
Histology,  Biology, 
Embryology,  Zoology 

Published  by 

P.  Blakiston's  Son  S,  Co. 


Illustrated    Circulars    sent    to 
any  Address  upon  Application 

Arranged  -upon  an  Embryolo^ical  Basis 

Jvist    Ready 

StoKr^s   Histology 

SixtK  American,  from  tKe  XwelftH  German  Edition. 
Revised    and    Arranged    by    FRBDEIRIC    T.    LEWIS 

Assistant  Professor  of  Emtryology  at  the  Harvard  Medical  School. 
With  450  Illustrations,  45   in   Colors.     Octavo;    ix  +  434  pages.     Cloth,   $3.00  net. 

THE  need  of  a  text-book  of  histology  arranged  upon  an  embryological  basis 
has  long  been  felt,  and  the  opportunity  to  accomplish  this  arrangement 
was  promptly  embraced  when  Professor  Stohr's  generous  permission  was 
given  to  adapt  a  new  edition  of  his  book  to  American  needs.  As  a  leading 
Professor  of  Histology  says,  "  the  book  is  now  in  its  arrangement  and  treatment 
something  adequate  as  a  statement  of  the  present  knowledge  of  the  subject. 
The  illustrations  illustrate;  the  text  instructs.^' 

The  Basle  Anatomical  Nomenclature  (BNA)  is  used  throughout. 

Vib        '/f/////K^pv  v.V 


D  E  F 

Fig.  159  (Reduced). — Embryonic  Hearts. 

A  and  B,  from  Rabbits  9  days  after  coitus,  C,  from  a  human  embryo  of  7,  (?)  weeks;  D  and 
E,  from  a  12  mm.  pig  (D  sectioned  on  the  left  of  the  median  septum,  and  E  on  the  right  of 
it);  *F,  from  a  13.6  mm.  human  embryo,  sectiojied  like  E. 

Synopsis  of  Contents. — Microscopic  Anatomy.  Cytology:  The  Cell; 
Form  and  Size  of  Cells;  Vital  Phenomena;  Formation  and  Reproduction  of 
Cells;  Cytomorphosis.  General  Histology:  Histogenesis;  Epithelia;  Mes- 
enchymal, Muscle,  Nerve,  and  Vascular  Tissues;  Blood  Forming  and  Blood 
Destroying  Organs;  Entodermal  Tract;  Urinary  and  Male  and  Female  Genital 
Organs;  Skin;  Supra-renal  Glands;  Brain  and  Sense  Organs.  The  Prepara- 
tion AND  Examination  of  Microscopical  Specimens:  Fresh  Tissues;  Isola- 
tion; Sectioning;  Fixation;  Decalcification;  Imbedding;  Staining  and  Mount- 
ing; General  Stains;  Special  Stains;  the  Microscope;  Drawings;  Reconstruction. 

An  Americanized  Fourth  Edition  Rewritten  and  Revised 


Morris'  Human  Anatomy 

A  Complete,  Systematic  Treatise  by  American  and  English  Authors 



F.R.C.S.  A.M.,  Ph.D. 

Consulting  Surgeon  to,  and  formerly  Lecturer  Professor  of  Anatomy y  University  of  Michi' 

on    Surgery    and    Anatomy   at  Middlesex  gan;    Member    Association    of    American 

Hospital,  London,  and  Examiner  in  Anat-  Anatomists;   Member  of  Advisory  Board, 

omy,  University  of  Durham,  etc.  Wistar  Institute  of  Anatomy,  etc. 

For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  this  famous  work,  American  anatomists  have  been 
asked  to  contribute  original  articles  and  to  rewrite  and  revise  sections,  the  object  in 
this  being  the  desire  to  incorporate  the  very  important  results  of  recent  investigations 
in  the  anatomical  laboratories  of  the  United  States.     The  book  has  become  internat- 
ional in  scope,  and  with  its  widening 
of  view,  of  even  greater  usefulness 
rediiced'^  .^^^t^^         "  *^^       ^^  ^^^  English-speaking  students. 

one-half  in  size.  -'^^^^^H^^'  '       ^fe,  \  Among  the  American  contributors 

.'     will  be  noted  J.  Playfair  McMur- 

rich,  R.  J.  Terry,  Irving  Hardesty, 

G.   Cari   Huber,  Abram  T.   Kerr, 

Charles  R.  Bardeen  and  Florence 

R.  Sabin.   Henry  Morris,  R.  Marcus 

Gunn  and  W.  H.  A.  Jacobson  head 

the  English  contributors. 

THE  Ventricles  Unrolled.     {After  MacCallum.)        ^j^^   ^^^   ^^    ^^^^    completely 

{Note:~Itis  not  possible  in  this  space  to  give  a  .    ^      ^         additional  feature 

thoroughly  representative  tllustration.     That  shown  ts  '        _  cvva-^tx^xio-x^  x^auui^ 

one  of  a  series  depicting — according  to  Professor  Mac-     of  merit  will  be  found  in  its  COn- 

CaUum,  of  Johns  Hopkins  University — the  fact  that     formity  with  the  new  Anatom- 

the  heart  may  be  considered  as  three  flat  bands.)  .^^^        Nomenclature       (BNA).* 

Very  especial  attention,  in  this  new  edition,  has  been  paid  to  the  illustra- 
tions, with  the  result  that  the  teaching  value  of  the  book  has  been  very  materially 

Containing  about  1024  Illustrations,  of  which  many  are  in  Colors.     One 
Handsome  Octavo  Volume.     Cloth,    $6.00.     Sheep  or  Half  Morocco, 
$7.00,  net.     Or   in    Five   Parts,  as   follows,  each  part  sold  separately. 
PART      I.  Morphogenesis.     Osteology.     Articulation.     Index. 
PART     II.  Muscles.     Organs  of  Circulation.     Index. 
PART  III.  Nervous  System.  •   Organs  of  Special  Sense.     Index. 
PART  IV.  Organsof  Digestion;  of  Voice  and  Respiration.     Urinary  and  Reproductive 

Organs.     Ductless  Glands.     Skin  and  Mammary  Glands.     Index. 
PART     V.  Surgical  and  Topographical  Anatomy.     Index. 

E.  n  t  om  o  1  o  g'y 

WitH    Special    Reference   to    Its   Biological    and    Eco- 
nomic Aspects 

By  Justus  Watson  Folsom,  Sc.  D.  (Harv,) 

Instructor  in  Entomology  at  the  University  of  Illinois. 
Five  Plates,  i  Colored,  and  300  other  Illustrations.     8vo;  485  pages.     Cloth,  $3.00  net. 

"  *  Entomology,'  by  Dr.  Justus  W.  Folsom,  is  an  advance  over  all  other 
American  works  of  its  kind.  It  should  be  in  the  hands  of  every  entomologist 
or  entomological  student,  and  in  every  public  library.  A  most  careful 
work,  containing  much  information  that  only  an  expert  has  heretofore 
known  where  to  find."— MR.  F.  M.  WEBSTER,  in  charge  of  the  Cereal  and 
Forage  Crops  Insect  Investigations,  Department  of  Agriculture  at  Washington. 

A  comprehensive  and  concise  account  of  insects,  written  to  meet  the  growing 
demand  for  a  biological  treatment  of  entomology.  The  aim  has  been  to  introduce 
much  material  that,  hitherto,  has  not  appeared  in  the  text -books;  and  though 
adapted  for  students  and  teachers  of  entomology  and  zoology  (being  the  only  book 
that  fills  the  actual  teaching  requirements)  it  will  also  be  valuable  to  the  profess- 
ional and  amateur  entomologists  and  to  the  general  reader,  especially  on  account 
of  its  consideration  of  economic  subjects.  The  book  contains,  in  small  compass, 
authenticated  facts  that  have  had  to  be  sought  in  many  foreign  languages.  The 
new  illustrations,  which  are  many,  have  been  prepared  by  the  author;  the  others 
have  been  copied,  by  permission  from  various  authoritative  sources. 

Synopsis  of  Contents:  Classification. — Anatomy  and  Physiology. — De- 
velopment.— Adaptations  of  Aquatic  Insects. — Color  and  Coloration. — Adap- 
tive Coloration. — Origin  of  Adaptations  and  of  Species. — Insects  in  Relation 
to  Plants;  to  other  Animals. — Interrelations  of  Insects. — Insect  Behavior. — 
Distribution. — Insects  in  Relation  to  Man. — Literature. — Index. 

"This  is  an  eminently  satisfactory  work  on  insects,  both  from  the 
standpoint  of  the  school  and  of  the  general  reader.    It  is  the  first 
adequate  treatment  of  this  subject  as  adapted  to  the  science  of 
entomology,  and  at  the  same  time  to  agriculture,  horticulture  and 
forestry.    It  teaches  every  fact  about  insects  that  it  is  desirable  to 
know  from  the  point  of  view  of  popular  science,  and  literally  all 
that  need  be  known  from  the  economic.    This  is  an  admirable  real- 
ization of  the  dream  of  the  schoolmaster  and  of  the  general  reader 
for  a  book  at  once  comprehensive,  concise  and  attractive." — Journal 
of  Education,  Boston. 
"Of  high,  practical  importance"  (Outlook),  "it  is  a  complete  and  concise  account 
of  insect  life,  planned  to  meet  the  growing  interest  in  biology  "  (School).     "  The  book 
is  a  noteworthy  one  "  (Psyche),  "  and  is  a  very  valuable  addition  to  the  general  work 
on  the  subject.     It  covers  much  ground  not  touched  by  the  other  books  on  insects" 
(Entomological  News).     "It  is  a  book  to  lean  upon  and  draw  upon"  (School  Bulletin). 
"  Will  be  most  useful  to  the  general  student"  (Science). 


The  Development  of  the 
Human  Body 

By  J.  Playfair  McMurrich.  A.  M.,  Ph.  D. 

Professor  of  Anatomy  in  the  University 
of  Michigan. 

Second  Edition,  Revised,  Enlarged. 

With  272  Illustrations. 
i2mo;  539  pages.    Cloth,  $3.00  net. 

A  CONCISE  statement  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  human  body  and  a  foun- 
dation for  the  proper  understanding 
of  the  facts  of  anatomy.  The  comparative 
anatomy  and  development  of  the  lower  ani- 
mals, too,  is  constantly  referred  to,  a  diflFerent 
style  type  being  used  for  these  references. 

The  assimilation  of  the  enormous  mass  of 
facts  which  constitute  what  is  usually  known 
as  descriptive  anatomy  has  always  been  a 
difficult  task  for  the  student.  Part  of  the 
difficulty  has  been  due  to  a  lack  of  informa- 
tion regarding  the  causes  which  have  de- 
termined the  structure  and  relations  of  the 
parts  of  the  body,  for  without  some  knowl- 
edge of  the  ''  why"  things  are  so,  the  facts  of 
anatomy  stand  as  so  many  isolated  items, 
while  with  such  knowledge  they  become 
bound  together  to  a  continuous  whole  and 
their  study  assumes  the  dignity  of  a  science. 
The  great  key  to  the  significance  of  the 
structure  and  relations  of  organs  is  their  de- 
velopment, recognizing  by  that  term  the  his- 
torical as  well  as  the  individual  development^ 
Synopsis  of  Contents:  Part  I. — Gen- 
eral Development :  The  Spermatozoon  and 
Spermatogenesis;  the  Ovum  and  Its  Matura- 
tion and  Fertilization;  the  Segmentation  of  the 
Ovum  and  the  Formation  of  the  Germ  Layers; 
The  Development  of  the  External  Form  of  the 
Human  Embryo;  The  Medullary  Groove, 
Notochord,  and  Mesodermic  Somites;  The 
Yolk-stalk,  Belly-stalk,  and  the  Fetal  Mem- 
branes. Part  II. — Organogeny:  The  De- 
velopment of  the  Integumentary  System;  Con- 
nective Tissues  and  Skeleton;  Muscular  Sys- 
tem; Circulatory  and  Lymphatic  Systems; 
Digestive  Tract  and  Glands;  Pericardium 
and  Pleuro-peritoneum,  the  Diaphragm  and 
the  Spleen;  Organs  of  Respiration;  Urino- 
genital  System  and  the  Suprarenal  Bodies; 
Nervous  System;  Organs  of  Special  Sense; 
Post-Natal  Development;  Index. 

"  Right  up  to  date."— Lflwce/,  London. 

A  Laboratory  Text-Book 
of  Embryology 

By  Charles  S.  Minot,  S.  D.,  LL.  D. 

Professor  of  Histology  and  Human  Em- 
bryology, Harvard  University 
Medical  School. 

With  218  Illustrations,  mainly  original. 
Quarto;  380  pages.     Cloth,  $4.50  net. 

This  work  is  intended  primarily  for  the  use 
of  students  taking  a  practical  laboratory 
course  in  Embryology.  The  author's  experi- 
ence has  led  him  to  believe  that  the  study  of 
carefully  selected  sections  of  embryos,  accom- 
panied by  directions  and  explanations  of  the 
significant  structures  in  each  section,  offers 
many  advantages.  This  conviction  has  de- 
termined the  arrangement  of  the  book.  At- 
tention is  given  chiefly  to  such  points  as  serve 
to  explain  adult  anatomical  relations,  to  illus- 
trate general  biological  principles,  and  to 
afford  insight  into  pathological  processes. 

Synopsis  of  Contents :  General  Concep- 
tions.— The  Early  Development  of  Mam- 
mals.— The  Human  Embryo. — Study  of  Pig 
Embryos. — Study  of  Young  Chick  Embryos. 
— Study  of  the  Blastodermic  Vesicle  and  the 
Segmentation  of  the  Ovum. — Study  of  the 
Uterus  and  the  Foetal  Appendages  in  Man. — 
Methods. — Index. 

"  This  new  laboratory  text-book  of 
Embryology  is  worthy  of  particular 
attention.  It  is  a  practical  guide  of 
a  novel  and  original  type,  which  is  to 
be  recommended  as  a  valuable  aid  in 
laboratory  teaching  of  a  difficult  na- 
ture. It  is  a  valuable  addition  to  the 
list  of  available  text-books  of  Embry- 
ology. In  fact,  the  book  stands  by 
itself  and  is  an  original  departure  in 
a  very  desirable  direction,  introduc- 
ing the  student  to  the  subject  by  a 
practical  method  which  promises  ex- 
cellent results.  After  a  year's  experi- 
ence with  it,  we  feel  much  confidence 
in  its  success." — Bulletin  of  the  Johns 
Hopkins  Hospital. 

First    Course    In 



By  T.    W.    Galloway,    PK.  D. 

Professor  of  Biology,  James  Millikin  Universityy  Decatury  Illinois. 
With  240  Illustrations.     Octavo;  460  pages.     Cloth,  $2.50  net. 

THE  AUTHOR  has  endeavored  in  this  book  to  present  a  balanced  course 
in  Zoology  which  will  be  suitable  to  beginning  classes  in  the  last  years  of 
the  High  School  or  the  first  year  of  College.  It  provides  specifically 
for  class-room  work,  reference  work  in  the  library,  laboratory  work,  and 
field  work.  It  includes  a  brief  treatment  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the 
science  in  the  first  part  of  the  book;  the  second  part,  which  contains  a  discus- 
sion of  the  great  branches  of  the  animal  kingdom,  is  treated  as  a  concrete  illus- 
tration of  these  general  principles. 

Among  many  other  distinctive  excellences  are  seven  features  which  give 
the  work  especial  merit:  (i)  It  follows  no  fads;  (2)  Because  of  the  wealth  of 
practical  exercises  suggested,  it  provides  more  work  than  any  one  class  can 
cover  in  the  time  allotted ;  (3)  Much  collateral  work  in  the  library,  field  and 
laboratory  is  outlined ;  (4)  The  practical  work  is  placed  upon  the  broader 
problems  of  physiology,  of  the  relations  of  animals  to  the  environment,  and  of 
the  adaptations  of  organic  form  to  needs,  rather  than  upon  dissection  and 
minute  anatomy;  (5)  The  practical  (i.  e.  the  laboratory,  field  and  library)  work 
is  interspersed  through  the  text  in  such  a  way  as  to  illustrate  and  enforce  the 
more  abstract  definitions  ;  (6)  Especial  emphasis  is  put  upon  the  illustrations; 
(7)  There  are  numerous  analytical  reviews  and  summaries. 

Synopsis  of  Contents: — Introduction. — Protoplasm:  Its  Morphology  and 
Physiology. — ^The  Animal  Cell:  Its  Morphology  and  Physiology. — From  the 
Simple  Cell  to  the  Complex  Animal. — Cellular  Differentiation. — Tissues. — Gen- 
eral Animal  Functions  and  Their  Appropriate  Organs. — Promorphology. — In- 
dividual Differentiation  and  Adaptation. — A  General  Preview  of  the  Animal 
Kingdom. — Protozoa. — Porifera.  —  Coelenterata.  —  Unsegmented  "  Worms." — 
Echinodermata. — Annulata:  Segmented  "  Worms." — Mollusca. — Arthropoda. — 
Chordata:  Proto-vertebrata. — Chordata :  Vertebrata. — Pisces. — Amphibia. — Rep- 
tilia. — Aves. — Mammalia. — General  Summary. — A  Review  Outline. — Appen- 
dix.— Suggestions  to  Teachers. — Index. 

"  Galloway's  *  First  Course  in  Zoology '  is  one  of  the  authoritative 
text-books.  The  teacher  may  refer  to  it  with  confidence,  and  cannot 
fail  to  do  so  with  profit." — School  Bulletin. 

TKe     Nervous      System      of 


By   J.    B.    Johnston,    F»ti.  D. 

Professor   of   Zoology  in   West    Virginia    University. 

With  1 80  Illustrations,  the  majority  from  original  drawings. 
Octavo;  xx+370  pages.     Cloth,  $3.00  net. 

THE  attempt  has  been  made  in  this  book  to  give  an  account  of  the  nervous 
system  as  a  v^^hole,  to  trace  its  phylogenetic  history  and  to  show  the  fac- 
tors which  have  determined  the  course  of  evolution.  The  functional  point 
of  view,  which  is  the  chief  characteristic  of  the  present  book,  brings  the  treat- 
ment of  the  nervous  system  into  close  relation  with  the  work  of  recent  years  on 
the  behavior  of  animals.  The  study  of  behavior  aims  to  give  an  account  of  the 
actions  of  animals  in  relation  to  the  environment.  The  study  of  the  nervous 
system  aims  to  describe  the  mechanism  by  which  actions  are  directed  and 
adapted  to  the  conditions  of  life.  A  text-book  of  comparative  neurology  at  the 
present  time  must  meet  the  needs  of  workers  of  all  grades,  students,  investi- 
gators and  instructors.  Its  descriptions  should  be  intelligible  to  students  who 
have  had  one  year  of  work  in  zoology  or  medicine,  including  the  anatomy  and 
embryology  of  some  vertebrate.  On  the  other  hand,  there  should  be  included 
all  facts  which  are  important  for  the  functional  and  phylogenetic  mode  of  treat- 
ment. Every  effort  has  been  made  to  bring  out  clearly  the  functional  significance 
and  relationships  of  the  structures  described,  and  to  interest  and  train  the 
student  in  the  interpretation  of  structure  in  terms  of  function,  adaptation  and 
evolution.  The  (BNA)  terms,  which  are  now  the  most  generally  familiar,  have 
been  employed  so  far  as  possible.  Much  material  has  been  collected  which  is 
published  here  for  the  first  time. 

Tavo  prominent  instr-uctors  sayt 

"  It  is  an  exceedingly  useful  piece  of  work,— well  done."  "  Profes- 
sor Johnston's  text-book  makes  a  valuable  addition  to  our  researches 
and  represents  the  newer  developments  of  neurological  science  in  a  way 
which,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  other  book  has  even  attempted." 

Synopsis  of  Contents : — Study  of  the  Nervous  System. — General  Morphol- 
ogy of  the  Nervous  System. — Development  of  the  Nervous  System. — Nerve  Ele- 
ments and  their  Functions. — The  Functional  Divisions  of  the  Nervous  System. — 
Somatic  Afferent  Division;  General  Cutaneous  Subdivision;  Special  Cutaneous 
Subdivision ;  Visual  Apparatus. — ^Visceral  Afferent  Division. — Olfactory  Appar- 
atus.— Somatic  Motor  Division. — ^Visceral  Efferent  Division. — Sympathetic 
System. — Centers  of  Correlation. — Cerebellum. — Centers  of  Correlation;  Mesen- 
cephalon and  Diencephalon. — Evolution  of  the  Cerebral  Hemisphere. — Neopal- 
lium.    Bibliography  and  Laboratory  Work  Suggestions  at  end  of  each  Chapter. 

Surgical  Anatomy 

A  Treatise  on  Human  Anatomy  in  its  Application 
to  the  Practice  of  Medicine  and  Surgery 

By  John  B.  Deaver,  M.D. 

Surgeon-in- Chief  to  the  German  Hospital ^  Philadelphia^  etc.y  etc. 

"  The  reader  is  not  only  taken  by  easy  and  natural  stages  from  the 
more  superficial  to  the  deeper  regions,  but  the  various  important 
regional  landmarks  are  also  indicated  by  schematic  tracing.  .  .  In 
summing  up  the  general  excellences  of  this  remarkable  work,  we  can 
accord  our  unqualified  praise  for  the  accurate,  exhaustive,  and  system- 
atic manner  in  which  the  author  has  carried  out  his  plan,  and  we  can 
commend  it  as  a  model  of  its  kind,  which  must  be  possessed  to  be 
appreciated." — Medical  Record,  New  York. 

Three  Royal  Octavo  Volumes,  of  2157  pages,  containing  499  Full -page 
Plates  engraved  from  original  drawings  made  by  special  artists  from  dissec- 
tions prepared  for  the  purpose  in  the  dissection -rooms  of  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania.  Sold  by  Subscription,  in  Complete  Sets  Only.  Leather  or 
Half-Morocco,  Marbled  Edges,  ;^3o.  00;  Half-Russia,  Gilt,  Marbled  Edges, 
;^33.oo  net. 

Synopsis  of  Contents  :  (^Number  of  Illustrations  in  Parentheses. ) 
Vol.  I. — Upper  Extremity  (95);  Back  of  Neck,  Shoulder,  and  Trunk  (24); 
Cranium,  Scalp,  Face  (32).  632  pages;  151  Plates.  Vol.  II. — Neck  (47); 
Mouth  (3);  Pharynx  (6);  Larynx  (10);  Nose  (9);  Orbit  (8);  Eye  (14); 
Ear  (12);  Brain.  (32);  Joints  of  Head  and  Neck  (4);  Male  Perineum  (17); 
Female  Perineum  (8).  709  pages;  170  Plates.  Vol.  III. — Abdomen  (74); 
Pelvis  (16);  Chest  (32);  Lower  Extremity  (56).     816  pages;   178  Plates. 

"  In  order  to  show  its  thoroughness,  it  is  only  necessary  to  mention 
that  no  less  than  twelve  full-page  plates  are  reproduced  in  order  to 
accurately  portray  the  surgical  anatomy  of  the  hand,  and  it  is  doubt- 
ful whether  any  better  description  exists  in  any  work  in  the  English 
language." — Journal  oj  the  American  Medical  Association. 

"The  illustrations  are  lavishly  supplied  and  are  both  helpful  and 
informing.  ...  No  better  text-book  of  surgical  anatomy  is  in 
existence,  and  we  can  confidently  predict  that  Dr.  Deaver  has  satisfied 
the  needs  of  the  profession  for  at  least  a  generation." — The  British  Medical 
Journal,  London. 




Prepared  by 
THEO.   H.   SCHEFFER,   A.M. 

Assistant  Professor  of  Zoology^  Kansas  State  Agricultural  College. 

Octavo  ;  vi  +  112  pages.     Strong  Adjustable  Cloth  Covers,  Cloth,  $1.00  net. 

Excerpts  From  the  Preface: 

Instructors  in  biology  very  generally  direct  the  laboratory  work  by  means  of 
written  or  printed  guides  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  student.  These  are  sometimes 
hastily  prepared  for  the  occasion,  or,  if  more  elaborated,  the  sheets  furnished  the 
student  at  various  times  are  not  uniform  in  size  and  will  not  fit  in  with  any  system  of 
notes  which  he  may  be  keeping. 

The  Loose  Leap  guides  are  the  results  of  several  years'  experience  in  directing 
zoological  work  in  high  school  and  college  laboratories.  The  sheets  outlining  the 
work  on  each  type  of  animal  are  separate,  so  that  they  may  be  incorporated  with  the 
student's  drawings  and  notes  on  that  particular  type.  The  recorded  information  on 
the  subject  is  thus  collected  together,  not  only  simpUfying  at  the  time  the  work  of 
studying  the  specimen,  taking  notes,  and  indexing  the  drawings,  but  making  future 
reference  to  the  records  an  easy  matter.  Then,  too,  the  laboratory  guides  being  thus 
bound  in  with  the  student's  notes,  do  not  become  scattered  or  lost. 

The  twenty-one  types  of  animal  life  herein  treated  give  the  student  a  brief  general 
survey  of  the  field  from  Protozoan  to  Vertebrate.  Similar  treatment  is  accorded  each 
type.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  zoological  position  of  each  animal  is  given  {Parker  and 
Haswell's  classification),  that  its  habitat  receives  attention,  and  that  there  are  hints 
on  collecting  the  material  for  class  study.  Details  of  structure  that  are  very  obscure 
are  either  omitted,  or,  if  essential,  attention  is  called  to  them  without  demonstration. 

Synopsis  of  Contents:  PROTOZOA.  Amozba;  Paramcecium;  Vorticella.  POR- 
IFERA.  Marine  Sponge.  COELENTERATA.  Fresh-Water  Hydra;  Hydroid; 
Hydroid  Medusa.  PLATYHELMINTHES.  Flat-Worm.  ECHINODER- 
MATA.  Starfish.  ANNULATA.  Earthworm.  ARTHROPODA.  Water-flea; 
Lobster  or  Crayfish;  Centiped;  Grasshopper;  Spider.  MOLLUSC  A.  Fresh-water 
Mtissel;  Snail;  Squid.     CHORDATA.     Catfish;  Frog  or  Toad;  English  Sparrow. 

"The  book  will  prove  useful  in  high  school  and  elementary  college 
courses."— r/ie  Nation. 

"It  is  a  most  capital  idea."{School  Bulletin),  "and  is  a  most  excellent  sys- 
tem of  keeping  notes." — Country  Life  in  America. 

g^°"Scheffer's  "Loose  Leaf  System"  is  not  bound  in  the  usual  manner.  Each 
leaf  is  separate  and  the  whole  tied  into  strong  adjustable  cloth  covers,  so  that  leaves 
may  be  removed  or  notes  and  drawings  may  be  inserted  at  any  place. 


Blakiston*s   Manikins 

A  Series  of  Twelve  Manikins  of  the  Head,  Nose,  Throat, 
Eye.  Ear.  Lungs.  Heart.  Stomach.  Kidney.  Liver.  Foot, 
and  Hand,  with  Descriptions  of  each.       •y*      ^      ^      ^ 

One  Volume.     Octavo.     Cloth,   ^1.50  net. 

The  manikin  of  the  HEAD  shows  88  different  structures;  that  of 
the  ORAL  CAVITY,  with  the  PHARYNX,  LARYNX,  and  TEETH,  shows 
61;  the  EYE,  44;  the  FOOT,  68;  the  HAND,  55;  the  LIVER,  47;  the 
KIDNEY,  20;  the  STOMACH,  23;  the  NOSE,  32;  the  EAR,  24;  the 
LUNGS,  18;    and  the  HEART,  33 —A  TOTAL  OF  513  STRUCTURES. 

The  work  is  issued  in  book  form,  octavo  in  size,  and  embraces  twelve 
manikins,  some  containing  as  many  as  ten  flaps,  lithographed  in  colors  on 
heavy  serviceable  cardboard,  the  whole  arranged  to  fold  flat  and  compact 
when  the  volume  is  closed.  Each  manikin  is  cut  to  the  exact  shape  of  the 
organ  illustrated,  and  the  various  flaps  are  intended  to  fold  one  upon  the 
other  in  the  order  shown  in  nature,  the  deeper  details  becoming  visible  only 
when  all  the  outer  layers  have  been  in  their  proper  turn  exposed.  Every  flap 
is  printed  on  two  sides,  each  side  representing  a  different  anatomical  feature. 

A  Manual  and  Atlas  of  DlsSectiOtl 

By  Simon  Menno  Yutzy,  M.D. 

Instructor  in    Osteology    and    Demonstrator    of  Anatomy   in   the    University 

of  Michigan. 

With  an  Introduction  by  J.  Playfair  McMurrich,  A.M.,  Ph.D. 

Professor  of  Anatomy,  University  of  Michigan  ;  author  of 
^'A  Manual  of  Human  Embryology.^ ^ 

This  work  is  a  topographical  index,  providing  the  reader  with  a  list  of 
the  structures  to  be  found  during  dissection,  together  with  concise  directions 
for  procedure. 

With  314  Illustrations,  many  in  Colors.  Large  Octavo;  256  pages. 
Cloth,   $2.50  net. 

"The  author's  experience  as  a  teacher  has  effected  an  arrange- 
ment Ukely  to  be  very  useful  to  the  student." — New  York  Medical  Journal. 


Mammalian  Anatomy 

W^itK  Special  Reference  to  tKe  Cat 

By  Alvin  Davison,  PH.  D. 

Professor  of  Biology  in  Lafayette  College. 

With  over  loo  Illustrations  made  by 
W.  H.  Reese,  A.  M.,  from  the 
author's  dissections.  i2nio;  250 
pages.     Cloth,  $1.50  tiet. 


'HIS  work  is  intended  to  acquaint 
the  student  with  the  general 
structure  of  the  cat,  and  at  the 
same  time  introduce  him  to  some  of 
the  most  important  morphologic  fea- 
tures of  the  Mammalian.  All  eminent 
zoologists  agree  on  the  desirability  of 
beginning  zoological  work  by  studying 
one  of  the  higher  animals.  Again, 
since  the  majority  of  college  students 
have  not  time  for  the  acquisition  of  a 
fruitful  knowledge  of  both  vertebrates 
and  invertebrates,  the  study  of  the 
former  is  a  matter  of  vital  importance, 
as  it  enables  the  student  to  become 
familiar  with  the  anatomy  and  physi- 
ology of  his  own  body.  It  also  has 
the  advantage  of  throwing  light  on  the 
significant  problem  of  organic  evolu- 
tion, such  as  is  not  to  be  derived  from 
the  study  of  invertebrate  forms.  Pro- 
fessor Davison's  work  has  a  distinct 
place  in  biological  study. 

Synopsis  of  Contents : — The  Bio- 
logical Sciences — Classification  of  the 
Animal  Kingdom — Preparation  and 
Preservation  of  Material  —  General 
Structure  of  a  Vertebrate — The  Skel- 
eton— The  Joints — The  Muscles — Or- 
gans of  Digestion  —  The  Vascular 
System — Respiratory  System — Excre- 
tory and  Reproductive  Systems — 
Nervous  System — Index. 

"  It  is  designed  to  fill  the  gap  between  the  more  detailed  works  and  those 
which  are  merely  laboratory  guides,  and  to  afford  the  student  who  cannot 
pursue  a  lengthy  course  of  zoological  study,  a  general  idea  of  the  structure 
of  a  mammal  and  of  the  principles  of  mammalian  anatomy.  The  book 
furnishes  an  excellent  idea  of  the  structure  of  the  cat,  free  from  a  superfluity 
of  detail.  Throughout  the  book  are  frequent  remarks  of  a  comparative 
nature,  and  at  the  close  of  each  chapter  is  a  list  of  questions  or  suggestions, 
for  the  most  part  of  a  general  nature,  which  will  serve  as  excellent  topics  for 
comment  by  the  teacher  or  for  collateral  investigation  under  his  direction  by 
the  student.  An  introductory  chapter  is  devoted  to  an  account  of  useful 
methods  by  which  the  dissection  may  be  facilitated,  and  the  text  is  illustrated 
by  numerous  figures  and  diagrams." — Science. 

Ventral  Aspect  of  the  Brain. 

A   Text-Book    of 

Anatomy  for  Nurses 

Just  Ready 

By  Elizabeth  R.  Bundy,  M.D. 

Member  of  the  Medical  Staff  of  the  Woman^  s  Hospital  of  Philadelphia,  etc.,  etc.; 

late  Adjunct  Professor  of  Anatomy,  and  Demonstrator  of  Anatomy  in 

the    Woman^  s  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania ;  formerly 

Superintendent  of   Connecticut    Training  School 

for  Nurses,  New  Haven. 

'  I  'HE  pupil-nurse  in  a  training  school  has  little  time  at  command  for  the 
study  of  text-books,  and  conciseness,  clearness  and  accuracy  are  essential 
requisites  of  any  work  written  for  her  use.  In  this  **  Anatomy  for 
Nurses' '  these  requisites  are  observed,  and  nurses — pupil  or  graduate — will  find 
in  it  a  satisfactory  aid  to  the  acquirement  of  that  knowledge  of  the  human 
body  which  is  necessary  to  the  full  understanding  of  their  important  duties. 

Dr.  Bundy,  by  reason  of  her  positions,  training  and  experience,  is 
particularly  well  qualified  to  write  such  a  book.  It  does  not  unnecessarily 
burden  the  mind  of  the  student  by  endeavoring  to  reach  into  the  domains  of 
the  physician,  nor  does  it  concern  itself  with  useless  abstract  or  theoretical 
matters.  On  the  contrary,  it  fills  a  void  for  a  work  that  is  simple,  terse, 
didactic, — one  that,  confining  itself  strictly  to  its  own  chosen  field,  is  yet 
complete  in  all  details  of  moment  therein. 

With  a  Glossary  and   191  Illustrations,   34  of  which  are  Colored. 
i2mo;      viii   +    252  pages.       Cloth,    ^1.75    net,  postage  prepaid. 

Miscellaneous     Books 


Holden's  Anatomy 

A  Manual  of  the  Dissections  of  the  Human  Body 
By  John  Langton*  F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon  to,   and  Lecturer  on  Anatomy  at,  St.  Bartholomew' s  Hospital . 

Seventh  Edition.  Carefully  Revised  by  A,   He^VSOn,  M.D. 

Demonstrator  of  Anatomy,  Jefferson  Medical  College,   Philadelphia,  etc. 

320  Illustrations.     Two  small  compact  volumes.      i2mo. 

Vol.    I.     Scalp,    Face,    Orbit,    Neck,    Throat,    Thorax,     Upper    Extremity. 

435  pages.      153  Illustrations.      Oil  Cloth,   ^1.50  net. 
Vol.  II.     Abdomen,  Perineum,  Lower  Extremity,  Brain,  Eye,  Ear,  Mammary 

Gland,  Scrotum,  Testes.     445  pages.      167  Illustrations. 
Oil  Cloth,   ^1.50  net. 

"The  last  edition  of  this  standard  work  comes  in  two  volumes  instead 
of  one  as  formerly.  A  few  alterations  have  been  made  in  the  text,  but 
the  general  character  of  the  book  is  still  maintained  throughout,  which 
is  saying  all  of  good  that  can  be  said  of  an  anatomical  classic." — Medical 
Record,  New  York. 

Human  Osteology 

Comprising  a  Description  of   the   Bones,   with   Colored 

Delineations  of  the  Attachments  of  the  Muscles. 

The  General  and  Microscopical  Structure 

of  Bone  and  Its  Development 

Eighth  Edition.     Carefully  Revised. 

Edited  by  Charles  Stewart,  F.R.S. 
a.nd  R.  W.  Reid,  M.D..  F.R.C.S. 

With  Colored  Lithographic  Plates  and  Numerous  Illustrations.   Cloth,  ^5.25  net. 

L/andmarkS-Medical  and  Surglcal 

Fourth  Edition.     8vo.     Cloth,  $  ."j^  net 


Miscellaneous    Books    (Continued) 


The  Gross  and  Minute  Ane^tomy  of  the 
Central  Nervous  System 

With  a  Chapter  on  the  Embryology  of  the 

Central  Nervous  System 

By  H.  C.  Gordinier.  A.M.,  M.D. 

Professor  of  Physiology  and  of  the  Anatomy  of  the   Nervous  System  in  the 
Albany  Medical  College;    Member  American  Neurological  Association. 
With  48  Full -page  Plates  and  213  other  Illustrations,  a  number  of  which 
are  printed  in  Colors  and  many  of  which  are  original.     Large  8vo.     Cloth, 
$6.00  j  Sheep  or  Half-Morocco,  $7.00,  net, 

"It  represents  much  painstaking  research  and  bears  also  the  stamp 
of  original  investigation.  It  is  unusually  well  written,  and  the  illustra- 
tions, many  of  which  are  original,  are  well  chosen.  It  is  destined  to  take 
its  place  among  the  standard  books  of  its  class.  "~iY.  Y .  Medical  Journal. 


Anatomy  and  Histology  of  the  Mouth 

and  Teeth 
By  Dr.  I.  N.  Broomell 

Professor  of  Dental  Anatomy,  Denial  Histology,  and  Prosthetic  Technics  in  the 
Pennsylvania   College  of  Dental  Surgery. 

Second  Edition,  Revised  and  Enlarged  by  72  pages.  337  Handsome 
Illustrations,  the  majority  of  which  are  original.  Large  Octavo.  Cloth, 
^^4.50;  Leather  or  Half- Morocco,  $5.50,  net. 

"A  most  excellent  manual  and  one  of  the  most  up-to-date  text- 
books upon  the  subject  of  the  anatomy  of  the  mouth  which  has  appeared 
in  recent  years." — The  American  Journal  of  Medical  Sciences. 

Box  and  £ccles. 

Clinical  Applied  Ana.tomy 

or,  the  Anatomy  of  Medicine  and  Surgery 
By  Charles  R..  Box.  M.D..  F.R.C.S. 

Lecturer  on  Applied  Anatomy,  St.   Thomas' s  Hospital, 

atnd  W.  McAdam  Eccles.  F.R.C.S. 

Demonstrator  of  Operative  Surgery,  St.  Bartholomew' s  Hospital. 
With  45  Plates,  12  Colored;    6  figures.     8vo  ;   471  pages.     Cloth,  ^4.00  net. 

"This  excellent  work  is  one  of  the  most  practical  and  applicable 
to  the  needs  of  the  medical  practitioner  or  senior  student  which  has  yet 
appeared  on  the  subject  of  applied  anatomy.  The  plan  pursued  by  the 
authors  in  this  book  has  been  to  treat  the  subject  entirely  from  a  clinical 
point  of  view  rather  than  that  of  the  anatomist,  with  the  result  of  making 
the  work  delightfully  readable.  Any  author  who  can  accomplish  this 
with  an  anatomical  subject,  and  without  detracting  from  the  technical 
value  of  his  work,  deserves  and  is  bound  to  receive  great  credit." — 
Medical  Record,  New  York. 


Miscellaneous     Books    (Continued) 

To^es  Dental  Anatomy 

A  Manual  of  Dental  Anatomy,  Human  and  Comparative 
By  C.  S.  Tomes,  D.D.S. 

263  Illustrations.        Sixth  Edition,   Revised.         i2mo.        Cloth,  ^4.00  net. 

"  This  standard  work  on  Dental  Anatomy  has  been  brought  thor- 
oughly up  to  date  and  is  a  distinct  advance  on  any  of  the  previous  editions. 
At  first  written  with  a  view  of  providing  the  dental  student  with  the 
requisite  knowledge  for  his  qualifying  examination  it  has  since  become  a 
text-book  for  the  student  of  biology  in  general.  This  fact,  combined 
with  the  rapidly  increasing  literature  on  the  subject,  has,  as  the  author 
points  out,  greatly  enhanced  the  difficulty  of  bringing  the  book  up  to 
date.  It  is,  however,  needless  to  say  that  the  work  of  editing  has  been 
carried  out  in  an  admirable  way." — Lancet^  London. 


E^quine  Anatomy  and  Physiology 

By  Wm.  R.  Ballou.  M.D. 

Late  Pj'ofessor  of  Equine  Anatomy^  New  York  College  of  Veterinary  Surgeons. 

With  29  Graphic  Illustrations.      i2mo.      Blakiston' s  ?  Quiz- Compend?  Series. 
Cloth,  $1.00;   Interleaved  for  the  Addition  of  Notes,  $1.25,  net. 

"One  of  Blakiston*s  series  of  Quiz-Compends.  These  Compends 
are  based  on  popular  text-books  and  the  lectures  of  prominent  professors, 
and  are  kept  constantly  revised,  so  that  they  represent  the  present  state 
of  the  subjects  upon  which  they  treat.  The  one  now  before  us  supplies 
for  students  of  veterinary  anatomy  and  physiology  a  work  which  will 
answer  their  needs  not  only  as  a  text-book,  but  also  for  work  in  the 
dissecting  room." — Science. 

Compend  of  Anaton\y 

Including  Visceral   Anatonny 
By  Sam\jel  O.  L.  Potter.  M.A.,  M.D.,  M.R.C.P. 


Formerly  Professor  of  the  Principles  and  Practice  of  Medicine^   Cooper  Medical 
College,  San  Francisco  ;  Major  and  Brigade  Surgeon,  U.  S.   Vol. 

Seventh    Edition,   Revised   and   greatly   enlarged.      With  numerous    Tables, 

1 6  Plates  and  138  other  Illustrations.    Blakiston'  s  ?  Quiz-  Competid  ?  Series. 

Cloth,  ^i.oo  ;   Interleaved  for  Taking  Notes,  $1.25,  net. 

"  Through  the  opportunity  afforded  a  revision  by  the  frequent  editions 
of  this  manual,  the  author  has  given  a  concise  and  accurate  work  of 
anatomy.  It  makes  an  excellent  text-book,  permitting  the  teacher  to 
enlarge  upon  the  information  given  as  the  exigencies  of  the  class-room 
demand." — Bulletin  of  the  American  Academy  of  Medicine. 


A  Text-Book  of 

Human    Physiology 

By  A.  P.  Brubaker,  M.D. 

Professor  of  Physiology  and  Hygiene  at  Jefferson  Medical  College  ;  Professor  of 
Physiology,  Pen7isylvania  College  of  Dental  Surgery,  Philadelphia, 

Second  Edition.       Revised  and  Enlarged.      With    Colored   Plates  and   356 
other   Illustrations.     Octavo;    715  pages. 

Cloth,  ^3.00;  Leather  or  Half-Morocco,  ^4.00,  net, 

"An  admirable  exposition  of  the  facts  of  physiology  brought  down 
to  the  latest  date.  .  .  .  The  author *s  style  is  lucid,  concise,  and 
pleasing.  The  work  is  one  which  may  be  warmly  commended  in  every 
respect." — New  York  Medical  Journal. 


Huinan    Physiology 

Including  Histology  and  Microscopical  Anatomy, 
with  Special  Reference  to  the  Require- 
ments of  Practical  Medicine 

By  Dr.  L.  Landois 

Professor   of  Physiology  and  Director  of  the   Physiological  Institute   in   the 

University  of  Greifswald. 

Tenth  Edition.     Revised  and  Enlarged. 

Edited  a^nd  Translated  by  A.  P.  Brubaker,  M.D. 

Professor  of  Physiology  at  Jeffersoft  Medical  College,  Philadelphia,  etc., 

and  Augustus  A.  Eshner,  M.D. 

Professor  of  Clinical  Medicine,  Philadelphia  Polyclinic,  etc. 

With  394  Illustrations.     Octavo;   1027  pages. 

Cloth,  ^7.00  ;  Leather  or  Half-Morocco,  ^8.00,  net. 

"  There  is  no  other  work  of  its  kind  in  the  English  language  which 
deals  with  the  normal  physiological  processes  so  as  to  show  where  the 
physiological  merges  into  the  pathological,  and  how  the  facts  of  pathology 
are  to  be  explained  by,  and  how  they  are  in  reality  of  the  same  essence  as, 
those  of  physiology.  .  .  .  The  book  will  be  useful  to  practitioners 
of  medicine  and  to  clinicians,  while  students  reading  for  the  higher  ex- 
aminations will  find  it  a  trustworthy  guide  to  the  fundamental  facts  of 
physiology  and  histology,  and  an  encyclopaedia  of  reference  as  well  as  an 
exposition  of  the  latest  discoveries  and  theories  of  physiology." — The  Lan- 
cet, London. 

"  The  author,  editor,  translator  and  publisher  have  unitedly  produced 
a  most  valuable  and  attractive  book  which  can  in  every  way  be  depended 
upon  as  authoritative." — American  Medicine. 






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University  of  California  Medical  School  and  Hospitals